Amino acids for stapled peptide are a special class of non-natural amino acids, usually containing α -methyl and α -alkene groups. The olefin redecomposition reaction occurs between these two kinds of non-natural amino acids, cyclizing to form stable α -helix conformation of all carbon scaffold, and then synthesizing stapled peptide.
Fig.1 General structure of two types of amino acids for stapled peptide
Amino acids for stapled peptide have the characteristics of strong site specificity, wide range of substrates, small disturbance to protein structure and flexible use. Amino acids for stapled peptide are widely used in genetic engineering, biology, medicine, pharmacy, chemistry and other research.
1. Application in genetic engineering
Amino acids for stapled peptide have many applications in genetic engineering drugs based on recombinant proteins, including recombinant cytokines, protein hormones, recombinant plasma proteins, recombinant thrombotic drugs, soluble receptors, therapeutic antibodies, recombinant medicinal plant and animal proteins, etc. Meanwhile, amino acids for stapled peptide can also be used in biological drugs and vaccines for prevention or therapy, nucleic acid drugs, small molecule polypeptide drugs, etc.
Amino acids for stapled peptide have more flexible and diverse R groups than other amino acids. Amino acids with different side chain pKa and REDOX potentials for stapled peptide can be used in kinetic studies. In addition, many amino acids for stapled peptide are used to detect protein-protein interactions due to their protein crosslinking properties.
2. Applications in biology and medicine
Because amino acids for stapled peptide have the ability to insert proteins precisely, it makes it possible for scientists to manipulate the structure of large molecules of drugs as precisely as they do in small molecules. This shows that amino acids for stapled peptide have great application prospect in bio-medicine.
For example, amino acids for stapled peptide are bioorthogonal, improving the targeting specificity and efficacy of drugs. Proteins containing amino acids for stapled peptide (e.g. cytokines, growth factors, antibodies) are specifically linked to other modules to form pegylated proteins, antibody-drug conjugates, antibody-antisense oligonucleotide conjugates, bi-specific antibodies, etc.
Incorporating amino acids for stapled peptide into protein sequences is a strategy for designing new proteins in synthetic biology. This strategy is important for studying the folding and function of natural proteins. In addition, amino acids for stapled peptide are also widely used as initial modular building units in the total synthesis of natural products.
3. Application in pharmacy
Amino acids for stapled peptide are also important drugs in their own right, and they are important structural units of many commercially available drugs. Amino acids for stapled peptide are widely used in anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, anti-cell growth and anti-tumor drugs, and most of these drugs have entered clinical studies. For pharmaceutical companies, no one can ignore the role of amino acids for stapled peptide in the development of new drugs. Amino acids for stapled peptide are also widely used in proteins, nucleosides and nucleic acids. They can limit the conformational flexibility of peptides, provide DNA or RNA molecules with stable secondary structures, enhance enzyme stability of peptides, and improve pharmacokinetic and biological activity.