Bicyclic amino acids belong to the amino acid family, and they have a bicyclic structure. Compared with other kinds of amino acids, bicyclic amino acids are more stable in structure and more modifiable. Bicyclic amino acids are widely used in medicine, biology, protein engineering and chemistry.
1. Application in medicine
Bicyclic amino acids and their derivatives can be used to treat a number of diseases, including epilepsy, fainting seizures, hypokinesia, cranial dysfunction, panic, pain, arthritis, neuropathological disorders and sleep disorders. For example, bicyclic amino acids and derivatives of bicyclic amino acids can be used as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors to treat hypertension. Angiotensin transferase, also known as kalinin, is an enzyme that binds to vascular endothelial cells. Angiotensin transferase can convert angiotensin I into angiotensin II in the body, which makes angiotensin II increase, leading to blood vessel constriction and high blood pressure. In addition, bicyclic amino acids and metals can be coordinated to form complexes. These complexes can be observed and imaging in special areas of the human body through nuclear magnetic resonance method, so as to better diagnose diseases.
Common bicyclic amino acids include tryptophan and tyrosine. Tryptophan is one of the essential amino acids and plays an important role in human growth and development. At the same time, tryptophan helps sleep. Foods containing tryptophan promote the excretion of serotonin and melatonin, and regulate the body's internal clock. Tyrosine drugs can reduce the stress state of human body, depression, anxiety, allergic headache and other good treatment. Meanwhile, tryptophan can be used as protein supplement for malnutrition, protein deficiency, severe gastrointestinal diseases, scald and severe surgery.
2. Application in protein engineering
As biological tools for analyzing protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, bicyclic amino acids and bicyclic amino acid derivatives carrying reactive groups can be selectively activated under non-invasive biological benign conditions, which is of great significance in protein engineering.
3. Application in chemistry
Bicyclic amino acids can be used as basic units to synthesize polypeptides, proteins and enzymes. For example, photoreactive bicyclic amino acids can be used as substrates to synthesize mutant escherichia coli phenylalanine synthase.