γ-amino acids are classes of amino acids classified by the positions of amino and carboxyl. γ-amino acids have both linear forms, and amino and carboxyl groups are separated or combined into a cyclic structure. Because γ-amino acid are a class of biologically active compounds in the central nervous system of mammals, it has attracted extensive attention from researchers. γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) analogs are a very important kind of γ-amino acids, thus the researchers' study on γ-amino acids mainly focuse on the synthesis of γ-amino butyric acid analogs by asymmetric methods starting from unsaturated compounds for using in clinical research. The inhibitor neurotransmitter g-amino butyric acid is a structural template for many substances that have an effect on the central nervous system. A common strategy for designing these compounds is to manipulate the γ-amino butyric acid molecule to increase its lipophilicity, thus allowing it to enter the central nervous system.
Medicine: Protease inhibitors: The structure type of β-hydroxy-γ-amino acids have been the focus of research in recent years, especially in the development of new drugs based on protease inhibitors. (1) Sedative nerves and anti-anxiety: The most widely studied γ-amino acid is γ-aminobutyric acid, which can reduce neuronal activity and prevent nerve cells from overheating. It can bind to and activate anxiolytic brain receptors, and then cooperate with other substances to prevent anxiety-related information from reaching the central nervous system of brain. (2) Lower blood pressure: γ-amino acids can act on the vascular motor center of the spinal cord, effectively promote vasodilation and achieve the purpose of lowering blood pressure. (3) Lower blood ammonia: γ-amino acids can also inhibit the decarboxylation reaction of glutamic acid and lower blood ammonia. More glutamic acid combines with ammonia to produce urea and excreted from the body to relieve ammonia poisoning, thereby improving liver function. (4) Treatment of mental illness: When the concentration of γ-amino butyric acid in the human body is too low, it will cause epilepsy, Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Ingestion of γ-amino butyric acid can increase the activity of glucose phosphatase, make brain cells active, promote metabolism of brain tissue and restore brain cell function, and improve nerve function. Therefore, such γ-amino acids have a pharmacological effect in clinical treatment of related diseases.
Animal husbandry: γ-aminobutyric acid has the effects of improving animal harvest, improving carcass quality, enhancing immune function, reproductive performance and anti-hypoxia ability, and relieving heat stress.
Food industry: Adding γ-aminobutyric acid as an additive to dairy products can further enhance the functionality of dairy products.