Catalog peptides refer to a class of peptides that are mass-produced and commercially available at a high level of purity. Catalog peptides include a series of bioactive peptides related to angiotensin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), adrenomedullin, beta-amyloid, antimicrobial, etc. Catalog peptides are diverse and mainly used for front-end basic research in medical and drug development, and normally can be categorized into various sorts by applications, such as cardiovascular system, digestive system, endocrine system, Alzheimer's, etc.
(1) Cardiovascular system and diseases
Angiotensin is a class of peptides with strong vasoconstrictive and aldosterone stimulating effects and regulatory effects on blood pressure and body fluid. Among them, angiotensin I-7 and angiotensin 1-9 are two peptides derived from angiotensin, exhibiting good anti-myocardial remodeling activity. Atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation can be prevented in dogs with chronic atrial tachycardia by administering Ang 1-7. Ang 1-9 can suppress norepinephrine and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-induced myocardial hypertrophy in rats. Radioligand binding assays have shown that Ang 1-9 is able to bind to AT2R and exert cardioprotective effects through AT2R-mediated signaling pathways.
Adrenomedullin is a peptide with vasodilatory and diuretic activity, presenting in human plasma at considerable concentrations and involving in the regulation of blood pressure. Clinical data demonstrate that adrenomedullin improves hemodynamics and hormone levels in patients with pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension.
(2) Digestion, appetite
Peptide YY (PYY) is a newly discovered hormone peptide, which is mainly secreted by the endocrine cells of the intestinal mucosa and function to constrict blood vessels, reduce of pancreatic and gastric acid secretion, inhibit gastrointestinal motility. Intraperitoneal injection of PYY (3-36) in rodents can significantly restrain their feeding. PYY administration in human subjects effectively reduced energy intake over a 24-hour period. In addition, peripheral administration of PYY (3-36) in obese subjects induced a significant satiety effect. However, peptide YY has not been used clinically due to its short biological half-life in vivo (less than 4h).
(3) Adrenal function
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a peptide hormone secreted by the pituitary gland of vertebrates, which promotes tissue proliferation in the adrenal cortex and the production and secretion of corticosteroids. ACTH functions to promote the synthesis and release of adrenal hormones. Exogenous high-dose ACTH is commonly used clinically as a reinforcing stimulus to mobilize the secretory capacity of the adrenal cortex and to detect changes in blood cortisol before and after stimulation. This method is used to assess the functions of the adrenal cortex and to determine primary or secondary abnormalities in adrenocortical function, which is essential for the diagnosis of related disorders.
(4) Alzheimer's disease
Amyloid β (Aβ) is a polypeptide containing 39-43 amino acids produced by the hydrolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase. The most common Aβ isoforms in humans are Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42. Aβ1-42 is more toxic and aggregates more readily, forms the core of Aβ deposits, triggers neurotoxic effects, and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ 1-42 peptide is being applied in the preparation of Aβ oligomers for the study of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and in the screening of anti-Alzheimer's candidate therapeutic compounds. For example, active substances such as resveratrol can repair Aβ 1-42-induced impairments in spatial learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity in rats.