Cosmetic peptides are small molecules of degraded collagen that contain amino acid groups and generally consist of 2-10 amino acids. The biological activity of Cosmetic peptides is determined by its amino acid composition and sequence.
As an active ingredient, cosmetic peptides are mainly used in cosmetics, providing a new direction and idea for the development and application of cosmetics.
Currently, cosmetic applications of cosmetic peptides are increasing and their functions are becoming more and more detailed. They can be divided into anti-aging, anti-allergy, repair, anti-oxidation, anti-edema, promoting hair regeneration, inhibiting melanin production, breast enhancement, weight loss, etc.
Generally, cosmetic peptides are divided into four categories: signal peptide, carrier peptide, neurotransmitter inhibitory peptide and enzyme inhibitory peptide.
1. Signal peptides
Signal peptides stimulate skin fibroblasts to produce more collagen, elastin, and other proteins in the dermal matrix, resulting in firmer and fuller skin. GHK is a typical signal peptide type of cosmetic polypeptide. Other common signal peptides are: palmitoyl tripepitde-5, palmitoyl tetrapeptid-3, palmitoyl dipeptid-6, palmitoyl oligopeptide/palmitoyl hexapeptide.
2. Carrier peptides
Carrier peptides provide the body with trace elements, such as copper and magnesium, that aid in wound repair and enzymatic processes. These trace elements can promote the synthesis of collagen, increase skin elasticity.
3. Neurotransmitter inhibitory peptides
Neurotransmitter inhibitory peptides added to cosmetics can inhibit the release of acetylcholine through chemical interactions and reduce the generation of wrinkles. Data from some in vivo studies suggest that neurotransmitter suppressor peptides can reduce wrinkles by about 30 percent. Common neurotransmitter inhibitory peptides include pentapeptide 3 and pentapeptide 18.
4. Enzyme inhibitor peptides
Enzyme inhibitor peptides inhibit enzyme activity, which reduces the breakdown of collagen and other proteins. For example, enzyme inhibitor peptides inhibit the hydrolysis of collagen by matrix metalloproteinases. The peptide derived from rice protein can inhibit the activity of MMP enzyme and reduce the hydrolysis of collagen. Peptide derived from soy protein can inhibit hair growth and remove pigment. Common enzyme inhibitor peptides include dipeptide-2, acetyl tetrapeptid-5, and oligopeptid-20.