Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) is artificially synthesized nucleic acid analog. While retaining the same level or even higher specificity, PNA is advantageous in its higher affinity to DNA/RNA and better stability against enzyme degradation and pH change.
Peptide Nucleic Acid could alternate gene expression including inhibition of transcription and translation, gene activation and mutagenesis, and gene delivery. In recent years, PNA has been applied in gene therapy, biosensor and diagnostics.
Similar to solid phase peptide synthesis, solid phase PNA synthesis uses PNA amino acid monomers with carboxylic acid and protected amine. After activation of the carboxylic acid, a coupling of the monomer with the solid phase affords newly formed amide bond. The protecting group on amine is then removed for the free amine to couple with new monomers. The bases for duplex formation are incorporated on the backbones.
Chemical structure of PNA monomer