BOC Sciences offers Fmoc PNA monomers, which are components of PNA oligomers. Fmoc PNA monomers are a class of building blocks or units used in the synthesis of Fmoc-protected peptide nucleic acids (PNAs). Fmoc (fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl) is a protecting group that is used to protect the amino group in PNA monomers. By using Fmoc protecting groups, PNA monomers can be selectively protected and deprotected during synthesis to control monomer condensation and reactions.
Fig.1 Synthesis of Fmoc-protected thiouracil monomer. (Sugiyama et al., 2017)
PNA monomers are building blocks or units of peptide nucleic acids that are used to construct specific sequences in a PNA molecule. PNA monomers consist of three main components: (1) Nucleotide bases. PNA monomers contain base units similar to those of DNA and RNA, including adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These base units are similar to the bases of DNA and RNA, but there are no glycosyl linkages in PNA. (2) Peptide backbone. The peptide backbone of PNA monomers consists of amino acid units connected by peptide bonds. Common amino acid units include alanine (A), β-isoleucine (β), and dimethylaminoalanine (γ). (3) Side chain protecting groups. In order to control selectivity and reactivity during synthesis, the amino functional groups on PNA monomers usually need to be protected.
First, the required Fmoc PNA monomer, activator, coupling agent, solid phase synthesis scaffold, solvent, etc. are prepared. Then, the Fmoc PNA monomer is dissolved in a suitable solvent, and a deprotectant (e.g., dimethylamino (DMA)) under alkaline conditions is added to remove the Fmoc protecting group from the amino group. Subsequently, the deprotected PNA monomer is subjected to condensation reaction with the PNA chain segments after deprotection in the previous step. The condensation of the monomers is facilitated using appropriate activators and coupling agents (e.g., DIC/NHS). Finally, upon completion of PNA synthesis, a final protection group removal is required to restore the original functional groups of the PNA molecule.
Fmoc PNA monomers can be used to design and synthesize PNA probes, which are highly specific and affinitive and can be used to detect specific sequences in DNA/RNA, such as gene mutations, SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms), and so on.
Fmoc PNA monomers can be used to synthesize PNA primers, which can bind specifically to target DNA sequences and mediate the guidance of gene editing tools (e.g., CRISPR/Cas9 systems) for gene modification and regulation of gene expression.
Fmoc PNA monomers can be used in the research and development of antimicrobial therapies. PNA molecules inhibit the growth and replication of target bacteria by binding to their gene sequences and interfering with their gene expression.
PNA molecules act as the probe portion of a sensor, which can specifically bind to target molecules (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids, etc.) and provide a detection signal through an appropriate signal transduction mechanism.
Fmoc PNA monomers can be used to synthesize PNA molecules with drug delivery functions. PNA molecules achieve targeted delivery of drugs or genetic materials by binding to specific cell surface receptors or molecules to improve therapeutic effects.