1.Identification of transformation products of antiviral drugs formed during biological wastewater treatment and their occurrence in the urban water cycle.
Funke J1, Prasse C2, Ternes TA3. Water Res. 2016 Mar 24;98:75-83. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2016.03.045. [Epub ahead of print]
The fate of five antiviral drugs (abacavir, emtricitabine, ganciclovir, lamivudine and zidovudine) was investigated in biological wastewater treatment. Investigations of degradation kinetics were accompanied by the elucidation of formed transformation products (TPs) using activated sludge lab experiments and subsequent LC-HRMS analysis. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.46 L d-1 gSS-1 (zidovudine) and 55.8 L d-1 gSS-1 (abacavir). Despite these differences of the degradation kinetics, the same main biotransformation reaction was observed for all five compounds: oxidation of the terminal hydroxyl-moiety to the corresponding carboxylic acid (formation of carboxy-TPs). In addition, the oxidation of thioether moieties to sulfoxides was observed for emtricitabine and lamivudine. Antiviral drugs were detected in influents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with concentrations up to 980 ng L-1 (emtricitabine), while in WWTP effluents mainly the TPs were found with concentration levels up to 1320 ng L-1 (carboxy-abacavir).
2.A new approach in compatibilization of the poly(lactic acid)/thermoplastic starch (PLA/TPS) blends.
Akrami M1, Ghasemi I2, Azizi H1, Karrabi M1, Seyedabadi M3. Carbohydr Polym. 2016 Jun 25;144:254-62. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.02.035. Epub 2016 Feb 23.
In this study, a new compatibilizer was synthesized to improve the compatibility of the poly(lactic acid)/thermoplastic starch blends. The compatibilizer was based on maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene glycol grafted starch (mPEG-g-St), and was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and back titration techniques. The results indicated successful accomplishment of the designed reactions and formation of a starch cored structure with many connections to m-PEG chains. To assess the performance of synthesized compatibilizer, several PLA/TPS blends were prepared using an internal mixer. Consequently, their morphology, dynamic-mechanical behavior, crystallization and mechanical properties were studied. The compatibilizer enhanced interfacial adhesion, possibly due to interaction between free end carboxylic acid groups of compatibilizer and active groups of TPS and PLA phases.
3.Removal of mercury(II) ions in aqueous solution using the peel biomass of Pachira aquatica Aubl: kinetics and adsorption equilibrium studies.
Santana AJ1, Dos Santos WN1, Silva LO1, das Virgens CF2. Environ Monit Assess. 2016 May;188(5):293. Epub 2016 Apr 15.
Mercury is a highly toxic substance that is a health hazard to humans. This study aims to investigate powders obtained from the peel of the fruit of Pachira aquatica Aubl, in its in natura and/or acidified form, as an adsorbent for the removal of mercury ions in aqueous solution. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The infrared spectra showed bands corresponding to the axial deformation of carbonyls from carboxylic acids, the most important functional group responsible for fixing the metal species to the adsorbent material. The thermograms displayed mass losses related to the decomposition of three major components, i.e., hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. The adsorption process was evaluated using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV AFS) and cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). Three isotherm models were employed. The adsorption isotherm model, Langmuir-Freundlich, best represented the adsorption process, and the maximum adsorption capacity was predicted to be 0.
4.Interactions of Zn(II) Ions with Humic Acids Isolated from Various Type of Soils. Effect of pH, Zn Concentrations and Humic Acids Chemical Properties.
Boguta P1, Sokołowska Z1. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 14;11(4):e0153626. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153626. eCollection 2016.
The main aim of this study was the analysis of the interaction between humic acids (HAs) from different soils and Zn(II) ions at wide concentration ranges and at two different pHs, 5 and 7, by using fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy, as well as potentiometric measurements. The presence of a few areas of HAs structures responsible for Zn(II) complexing was revealed. Complexation at α-sites (low humified structures of low-molecular weight and aromatic polycondensation) and β-sites (weakly humified structures) was stronger at pH 7 than 5. This trend was not observed for γ-sites (structures with linearly-condensed aromatic rings, unsaturated bonds and large molecular weight). The amount of metal complexed at pH5 and 7 by α and γ-structures increased with a decrease in humification and aromaticity of HAs, contrary to β-areas where complexation increased with increasing content of carboxylic groups. The stability of complexes was higher at pH 7 and was the highest for γ-structures.