1. Effect of Ca(OH)2 on the Release Characteristics of HCl during Sludge Combustion
Zhenghui Xu, Jiankang Tan, Chunhua Hu, Ping Fang, Xiang Xiao, Jianhang Huang, Haiwen Wu, Zijun Tang, Dongyao Chen ACS Omega. 2020 Oct 15;5(42):27197-27203. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.0c03286. eCollection 2020 Oct 27.
With the addition of Ca(OH)2, the effects of combustion temperature, moisture, sludge particle size, and chlorine-containing additives on the removal of HCl during sludge combustion were studied. The experimental results showed that combustion temperature and moisture content promoted the formation of HCl and Ca(OH)2 played a key role in the formation of HCl during sludge combustion. Under the best conditions of a sludge particle size of 380-250 μm, moisture content of 5%, temperature of 850 °C, and Ca(OH)2/sludge weight ratio of 3/10, the HCl capture efficiency was 79.81%. In addition, the effect of PVC on the production of HCl was greater than that of NaCl, probably because the lattice energy of NaCl was much higher, indicating that inorganic chlorine was not the main source of HCl. Ca(OH)2 can effectively inhibit the formation of HCl, which had practical guiding significance for the formation of HCl during the sludge combustion, especially the sludge containing chlorine.
2. Standardized Hybrid Closed-Loop System Reporting
Viral N Shah, Satish K Garg Diabetes Technol Ther. 2021 May;23(5):323-331. doi: 10.1089/dia.2020.0622. Epub 2020 Nov 25.
The hybrid closed-loop (HCL) system has been shown to improve glycemic control and reduce hypoglycemia. Optimization of HCL settings requires interpretation of the glucose, insulin, and factors affecting glucose such as food intake and exercise. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published guidance on the standardized reporting of HCL systems. Standardization of HCL reporting would make interpretation of data easy across different systems. We reviewed the literature on patient and provider perspectives on downloading and reporting glucose metric preferences. We also incorporated international consensus on standardized reporting for glucose metrics. We describe a single-page HCL data reporting, referred to here as "artificial pancreas (AP) Dashboard." We propose seven components in the AP Dashboard that can provide detailed information and visualization of glucose, insulin, and HCL-specific metrics. The seven components include (A) glucose metrics, (B) hypoglycemia, (C) insulin, (D) user experience, (E) hyperglycemia, (F) glucose modal-day profile, and (G) insight. A single-page report similar to an electrocardiogram can help providers and patients interpret HCL data easily and take the necessary steps to improve glycemic outcomes. We also describe the optimal sampling duration for HCL data download and color coding for visualization ease. We believe that this is a first step in creating a standardized HCL reporting, which may result in better uptake of the systems. For increased adoption, standardized reporting will require input from providers, patients, diabetes device manufacturers, and regulators.