1.Amino acid-azetidine chimeras: synthesis of enantiopure 3-substituted azetidine-2-carboxylic acids.
Sajjadi Z1, Lubell WD. J Pept Res. 2005 Feb;65(2):298-310.
Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze) analogs possessing various heteroatomic side chains at the 3-position have been synthesized by modification of 1-9-(9-phenylfluorenyl) (PhF)-3-allyl-Aze tert-butyl ester (2S,3S)-1. 3-Allyl-Aze 1 was synthesized by regioselective allylation of alpha-tert-butyl beta-methyl N-(PhF)aspartate 13, followed by selective omega-carboxylate reduction, tosylation, and intramolecular N-alkylation. Removal of the PhF group and olefin reduction by hydrogenation followed by Fmoc protection produced nor-leucine-Aze chimera 2. Regioselective olefin hydroboration of (2S,3S)-1 produced primary alcohol 23, which was protected as a silyl ether, hydrogenated and N-protected to give 1-Fmoc-3-hydroxypropyl-Aze 26. Enantiopure (2S,3S)-3-(3-azidopropyl)-1-Fmoc-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester 3 was prepared as a Lys-Aze chimera by activation of 3-hydroxypropyl-Aze 26 as a methanesulfonate and displacement with sodium azide.
2.Synthesis of N-Fmoc-(2S,3S,4R)-3,4-dimethylglutamine: An application of lanthanide-catalyzed transamidation.
Calimsiz S1, Lipton MA. J Org Chem. 2005 Aug 5;70(16):6218-21.
N-Fmoc-(2S,3S,4R)-3,4-dimethylglutamine (6) was synthesized from tert-butyl N-Boc-(2S,3S,4R)-dimethylpyroglutamate (13). This synthesis involved selective deprotection of a Boc group from a lactam nitrogen in the presence of a tert-butyl ester, Fmoc protection of the lactam, and a lanthanide-catalyzed transamidation reaction of the Fmoc-protected lactam, using ammonia and dimethylaluminum chloride. The scope of Lewis acid-catalyzed transamidation of acylated lactams was explored through the variation of lanthanide, lactam, acyl group, amine, and aluminum reagent. The reactivity of various metal triflates was found to vary in the following qualitative order: Yb approximately Sc > Er approximately Eu approximately Sm > Ce approximately Ag(I) > Cu(II) approximately Zn. Intriguingly, catalysis was only observed when ammonia was the nitrogen nucleophile; addition of other amidoaluminum complexes to acyl lactams was found to be insensitive to the addition of lanthanides.
3.Chiral synthesis of (2S,3S)-2-(2-morpholin-2-yl-2-phenylmethoxy)phenol.
Prabhakaran J1, Majo VJ, Mann JJ, Kumar JS. Chirality. 2004 Mar;16(3):168-73.
Resolution of (2RS,3RS)-2-[alpha-(2-methoxymethoxyphenoxy)phenylmethyl]morpholine, 11, with (+) mandelic acid led to the formation of (+)-(2S,3S)-2-[alpha-(2-methoxymethoxyphenoxy)phenyl methyl] morpholine (11a). Compound 11 was synthesized in seven steps from (2RS,3RS)-cinnamyl alcohol-2,3-epoxide (4), with an overall yield of 17%. Cleavage of the methoxymethyl group of the Fmoc derivative 12 with catalytic amounts of p-toluenesulfonic acid in methanol afforded (+)-(2S,3S)-2-(2-morpholin-2-yl-2-phenylmethoxy)phenol 2. The synthetic utility as well as the configuration of compound 2 has been demonstrated by converting (S,S)-2-(2-morpholin-2-yl-2-phenylmethoxy)phenol 2 to (2S,3S)-2-[alpha-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)phenylmethyl]morpholine (1) and (2S,3S)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy) benzyl)morpholine (16), two potential norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors under clinical evaluation.
4.Enantioselective synthesis of (2R, 3S)- and (2S, 3R)-4,4,4-trifluoro-N-Fmoc-O-tert-butyl-threonine and their racemization-free incorporation into oligopeptides via solid-phase synthesis.
Xiao N1, Jiang ZX, Yu YB. Biopolymers. 2007;88(6):781-96.
An efficient method for the enantioselective synthesis of (2R, 3S)- and (2S, 3R)-4,4,4-trifluoro-N-Fmoc-O-tert-butyl-threonine on multigram scales was developed. Absolute configurations of the two stereoisomers were ascertained by X-ray crystallography. Racemization-free coupling conditions for the incorporation of tfT into oligopeptides were then explored. For solution-phase synthesis, tfT racemization was not an issue under conventional coupling conditions. For solid-phase synthesis, the following conditions were identified to achieve racemization-free synthesis: if tfT (3.0 equiv) was not the first amino acid to be linked to the resin (1.0 equiv), the condition is 2.7 equiv DIC/3.0 equiv HOBt as the coupling reagent at 0 degrees C for 20 h; if tfT (3.0 equiv) was the first amino acid to be linked to the resin (1.0 equiv), then 1.0 equiv of CuCl(2) needs to be added to the coupling reagent.