1.[D-1-Nal4]endomorphin-2 is a potent micro-opioid receptor antagonist in the aequorin luminescence-based calcium assay.
Fichna J1, Piestrzeniewicz M, Gach K, Poels J, Burgeon E, Vanden Broeck J, Janecka A. Life Sci. 2006 Aug 8;79(11):1094-9. Epub 2006 Mar 21.
A functional assay, based on aequorin-derived luminescence triggered by receptor-mediated changes in Ca(2+) levels, was used to examine relative potency and efficacy of the micro-opioid receptor antagonists. A series of position 3- and 4-substituted endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH(2)) analogues containing D-3-(1-naphthyl)-alanine (D-1-Nal) or D-3-(2-naphthyl)-alanine (D-2-Nal), which were previously shown to reverse antinociception induced by endomorphin-2 in the in vivo hot-plate test in mice, was tested in the aequorin luminescence-based calcium assay to examine their micro-opioid antagonist potency in vitro. A recombinant mammalian cell line expressing the micro-opioid receptor together with a luminescent reporter protein, apoaequorin, was used in the study. The results obtained in this functional assay indicated that analogues with D-1-Nal or D-2-Nal substitutions in position 4 of endomorphin-2 are strong micro-opioid receptor antagonists, while those substituted in position 3 are partial agonists.