1. 3,4-Dehydro-L-proline Induces Programmed Cell Death in the Roots of Brachypodium distachyon
Artur Pinski, Alexander Betekhtin, Jolanta Kwasniewska, Lukasz Chajec, Elzbieta Wolny, Robert Hasterok Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jul 14;22(14):7548. doi: 10.3390/ijms22147548.
As cell wall proteins, the hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) take part in plant growth and various developmental processes. To fulfil their functions, HRGPs, extensins (EXTs) in particular, undergo the hydroxylation of proline by the prolyl-4-hydroxylases. The activity of these enzymes can be inhibited with 3,4-dehydro-L-proline (3,4-DHP), which enables its application to reveal the functions of the HRGPs. Thus, to study the involvement of HRGPs in the development of root hairs and roots, we treated seedlings of Brachypodium distachyon with 250 µM, 500 µM, and 750 µM of 3,4-DHP. The histological observations showed that the root epidermis cells and the cortex cells beneath them ruptured. The immunostaining experiments using the JIM20 antibody, which recognizes the EXT epitopes, demonstrated the higher abundance of this epitope in the control compared to the treated samples. The transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed morphological and ultrastructural features that are typical for the vacuolar-type of cell death. Using the TUNEL test (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling), we showed an increase in the number of nuclei with damaged DNA in the roots that had been treated with 3,4-DHP compared to the control. Finally, an analysis of two metacaspases' gene activity revealed an increase in their expression in the treated roots. Altogether, our results show that inhibiting the prolyl-4-hydroxylases with 3,4-DHP results in a vacuolar-type of cell death in roots, thereby highlighting the important role of HRGPs in root hair development and root growth.
2. Oxidation of 3,4-dehydro-D-proline and other D-amino acid analogues by D-alanine dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli
Charles E Deutch FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004 Sep 15;238(2):383-9. doi: 10.1016/j.femsle.2004.08.001.
3,4-Dehydro-DL-proline is a toxic analogue of L-proline which has been useful in studying the uptake and metabolism of this key amino acid. When membrane fractions from Escherichia coli strain UMM5 (putA1::Tn5 proC24) lacking both L-proline dehydrogenase and L-Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase were incubated with 3,4-dehydro-DL-proline, pyrrole-2-carboxylate was formed. There was no enzyme activity with 3,4-dehydro-L-proline, but activity was restored after racemization of the substrate. Oxidation of 3,4-dehydro-DL-proline by membrane fractions from strain UMM5 was induced by growth in minimal medium containing D- or L-alanine, had a pH optimum of 9, and was competitively inhibited by D-alanine. An E. coli strain with no D-alanine dehydrogenase activity due to the dadA237 mutation was unable to oxidize either 3,4-dehydro-D-proline or D-alanine, as were spontaneous Dad(-) mutants of E. coli strain UMM5. Membrane fractions containing D-alanine dehydrogenase also catalyzed the oxidation of D-2-aminobutyrate, D-norvaline, D-norleucine, cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline, and DL-ethionine. These results indicate that d-alanine dehydrogenase is responsible for the residual 3,4-dehydro-DL-proline oxidation activity in putA proC mutants of E. coli and provide further evidence that this enzyme plays a general role in the metabolism of D-amino acids and their analogues.
3. Regio- and stereoselective oxygenation of proline derivatives by using microbial 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases
Ryotaro Hara, Naoko Uchiumi, Naoko Okamoto, Kuniki Kino Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2014;78(8):1384-8. doi: 10.1080/09168451.2014.918490. Epub 2014 Jun 26.
We evaluated the substrate specificities of four proline cis-selective hydroxylases toward the efficient synthesis of proline derivatives. In an initial evaluation, 15 proline-related compounds were investigated as substrates. In addition to l-proline and l-pipecolinic acid, we found that 3,4-dehydro-l-proline, l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, cis-3-hydroxy-l-proline, and l-thioproline were also oxygenated. Subsequently, the product structures were determined, revealing cis-3,4-epoxy-l-proline, cis-3-hydroxy-l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, and 2,3-cis-3,4-cis-3,4-dihydroxy-l-proline.