1. Inhibition of human epithelial ovarian cancer cell growth in vitro by agonistic and antagonistic analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone
T Yano, J Pinski, S Radulovic, A V Schally Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Mar 1;91(5):1701-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.91.5.1701.
In this study, we investigated the effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH, LH-RH antagonist [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2,D-Pal(3)3,D-Cit6,D-Ala10]LH-RH (SB-75), and estradiol on the growth of human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line OV-1063. Cells were cultured under estrogen-deprived conditions. Estradiol inhibited cell proliferation, as measured by cell number at 10(-9)-10(-7) M and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA at 10(-13)-10(-8) M. Both LH-RH analogs inhibited cell growth dose dependently in the range 10(-8)-10(-5) M, but SB-75 induced a greater growth inhibition than [D-Trp6]LH-RH. In OV-1063 cells, 125I-labeled [D-Trp6]LH-RH was bound to one class of specific, saturable binding sites with high affinity (Kd = 1.4 +/- 0.3 nM) and low capacity (4000 binding sites per cell). 125I-labeled [D-Trp6]LH-RH could be displaced by unlabeled [D-Trp6]LH-RH and SB-75, suggesting that both analogs are bound to the same receptor on OV-1063 cells. Ligand binding was dependent on time and temperature. Receptor internalization assay showed that the ligand-receptor complex was internalized at 37 degrees C, which indicates the presence of biologically active LH-RH receptors on OV-1063 cells. These results suggest that estradiol and LH-RH analogs can suppress the growth of OV-1063 human epithelial ovarian cancer cells by a direct action and that the inhibitory effect of LH-RH analogs is mediated through the high-affinity LH-RH receptors.
2. Sustained release formulations of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist SB-75 inhibit proliferation and enhance apoptotic cell death of human prostate carcinoma (PC-82) in male nude mice
T W Redding, A V Schally, S Radulovic, S Milovanovic, K Szepeshazi, J T Isaacs Cancer Res. 1992 May 1;52(9):2538-44.
The function of the pituitary-gonadal axis in normal (immunocompetent) and nude (immunocompromised) mice, like that of other species, can be suppressed by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists and antagonists administered by continuous release systems and, therefore, nude mice provide a valuable model for investigation of the effects of LH-RH analogues on growth of xenografts of human cancers. To extend our findings further, we treated male nude mice bearing xenografts of human prostate adenocarcinoma PC-82, for 42 days, with sustained release formulations (microcapsules or microgranules) of the agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH, the antagonist [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,D-Cit6,D-Ala10]LH- RH (SB-75), or the somatostatin analogue D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Trp-NH2 (RC-160). At necropsy, in mice given microcapsules releasing 25 micrograms/day of [D-Trp6]-LH-RH, tumor weight and volume were significantly decreased, compared with control mice, and weights of testes, ventral prostate, and seminal vesicles were also reduced in this group. In mice which received microgranules liberating 50 micrograms/day of antagonist SB-75, there was a greater decrease in tumor weight and volume than that produced by the agonist and a significant reduction in the weight of the testes and accessory sex organs. Histological parameters also demonstrated significant tumor inhibition, with the best results being obtained by treatment with the antagonist SB-75. The tumor inhibition induced by SB-75 was demonstrated to be due to decreased cellular proliferation, with enhanced cellular death (i.e., apoptosis) of the PC-82 cells. Microcapsules releasing 50 micrograms/day of RC-160 decreased tumor weight and volume by 23% and 28%, respectively, but this reduction was not significant. Serum levels of testosterone were decreased by 90% in mice given the LH-RH agonist and by 94% in response to the antagonist SB-75. Serum levels of prostate-specific antigen were significantly lower in mice treated with LH-RH analogues, with the antagonist SB-75 causing a greater reduction. A ratio of prostate-specific antigen to tumor weight suggests that levels of serum prostate-specific antigen may be correlated with tumor mass. Using sensitive multipoint micromethods, one class of binding sites for LH-RH, with a dissociation constant of 7.8 +/- 1.2 nM and a maximal binding capacity of 126.4 +/- 23.1 fmol/mg protein, was found in the control tumors. Tumors from mice treated with either LH-RH agonist or antagonist, but not somatostatin analogue RC-160, showed a significant reduction in maximal binding capacity for LH-RH, compared to control tumors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
3. Somatostatin analogue RC-160 and LH-RH antagonist SB-75 inhibit growth of MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer xenografts in nude mice
S Radulovic, A M Comaru-Schally, S Milovanovic, A V Schally Pancreas. 1993 Jan;8(1):88-97. doi: 10.1097/00006676-199301000-00016.
Nude mice bearing xenografts of the MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cell line were treated with sustained-release formulations (microcapsules) of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist [D-Trp6]-LH-RH, somatostatin analogue RC-160 (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Trp-NH2), or combination of both analogues. Other groups of mice received daily subcutaneous injections of LH-RH antagonist SB-75 [Ac-D-Nal(2)',D- Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,D-Cit6,D-Ala10-LH-RH] or bombesin antagonist RC-3095. At necropsy, in mice given microcapsules releasing 25 micrograms/day of [D-Trp6]-LH-RH, tumor weight and volume were decreased, but not significantly, as compared with control mice. Microcapsules of RC-160, releasing 25 micrograms/day, significantly reduced tumor volume, percentage change in tumor volume, and tumor weight. Combination of RC-160 and [D-Trp6]-LH-RH inhibited tumor growth to a somewhat greater extent than RC-160 alone. Bombesin antagonist RC-3095, at a dose of 25 micrograms/day, did not influence the growth of tumors. In mice receiving 100 micrograms/day of antagonist SB-75, there was a significant decrease in tumor weight and volume and a significant reduction in the weight of ovaries and uteri. Specific binding of [125I]RC-160 and [125I][D-Trp6]-LH-RH, but not [125I]Tyr4-bombesin, was found on MIA PaCa-2 cells in culture. [D-Trp6]-LH-RH, SB-75, and RC-160 inhibited the growth of MIA PaCa-2 cells in vitro. Neither bombesin nor RC-3095 influenced the growth of MIA PaCa-2 cells in cultures. The results indicate that the LH-RH antagonist SB-75 could be tried for treatment of pancreatic cancer. Our findings confirm the efficacy of somatostatin analogue RC-160 in inhibiting the growth of pancreatic cancers and suggest that the combination of RC-160 and agonist [D-Trp6]-LH-RH might possibly increase the therapeutic response.