2.Towards optimized anesthesia protocols for stereotactic surgery in rats: Analgesic, stress and general health effects of injectable anesthetics. A comparison of A recommended complete reversal anesthesia with traditional chloral
Hüske C1, Sander SE2, Hamann M3, Kerschaw O4, Richter F1, Richter A1. Brain Res. 2016 Apr 8. pii: S0006-8993(16)30214-1. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2016.04.019. [Epub ahead of print]
Although injectable anesthetics are still widely used in laboratory rodents, scientific data concerning pain and distress during and after stereotactic surgery are rare. However, optimal anesthesia protocols have a high impact on the quality of the derived data. We therefore investigated the suitability of recommended injectable anesthesia with a traditionally used monoanesthesia for stereotactic surgery in view of optimization and refinement in rats. The influence of the recommended complete reversal anesthesia (MMF; 0.15mg/kg medetomidine, 2mg/kg midazolam, 0.005mg/kg fentanyl; i.m.) with or without reversal and of chloral hydrate (430mg/kg, 3.6%, i.p.) on various physiological, biochemical and behavioral parameters (before, during, after surgery) was analyzed. Isoflurane was also included in stress parameter analysis. In all groups, depth of anesthesia was sufficient for stereotactic surgery with no animal losses. MMF caused transient exophthalmos, myositis at the injection site and increased early postoperative pain scores.
3.Evaluating the teratogenicity of the selective ß3-adrenoceptor agonist, CL 316.243 hydrate by employing FETAX (frog embryo teratogenesis assay).
Boga A1, Sertdemir Y2, Dogan A1. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2016 Apr 10:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]
In this study, the frog embryo teratogenesis assay (FETAX - Xenopus) technique was employed to evaluate the potential teratogenicity of the selective ß-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist, CL 316.243. In this context, CL 316.243 was applied to the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. The media containing the CL 316.24-exposed embryos were monitored and changed/replaced once every 24 hours. Using FETAX, we determined the minimum concentrations to inhibit growth (MCIG) for CL 316.243. The 96-hour no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC), the 96-hour lowest observable adverse effect concentration (LOAEC), the 96-hour EC50 (malformation) and the 96-hour LC50 (lethal concentration) for mortality and malformation could not be determined because the used concentrations did not affect viability or the presence of abnormalities. On the other hand, the MCIG of CL 316.243 was determined as 1 mg/L. Our results demonstrated that CL 316.
4.Modeling the formation of the quench product in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash.
Inkaew K1, Saffarzadeh A2, Shimaoka T3. Waste Manag. 2016 Apr 11. pii: S0956-053X(16)30103-9. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2016.03.019. [Epub ahead of print]
This study investigated changes in bottom ash morphology and mineralogy under lab-scale quenching conditions. The main purpose was to clarify the mechanisms behind the formation of the quench product/layer around bottom ash particles. In the experiments, the unquenched bottom ashes were heated to 300°C for 1h, and were quenched by warm water (65°C) with different simulated conditions. After having filtered and dried, the ashes were analyzed by a combination of methodologies namely, particle size distribution analysis, intact particle and thin-section observation, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that after quenching, the morphology and mineralogy of the bottom ash changed significantly. The freshly quenched bottom ash was dominated by a quench product that was characterized by amorphous and microcrystalline calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) phases. This product also enclosed tiny minerals, glasses, ceramics, metals, and organic materials.