1. Effects of urea and guanidine hydrochloride on peptide and nonpolar groups
P K Nandi, D R Robinson Biochemistry. 1984 Dec 18;23(26):6661-8. doi: 10.1021/bi00321a058.
The free energy transfer of several N-acetyl(glycine)n ethyl esters (n = 1-3) and side chain derivatives (Ala, Val, Nva, Leu, Nle, and Phe) from water to urea and guanidine hydrochloride solutions has been determined from the solubility and distribution coefficients of these compounds between aqueous and nonaqueous phases. These uncharged model peptides, unlike the amino acids used for a similar study, avoid complication due to charge effects for the transfer process. The compounds with an increase in the number of glycyl groups show additivity of the group free energy toward the transfer from water to urea solution but not to guanidine hydrochloride solution. The derivatives with a side chain show that the principle of group additivity does not hold true for the aliphatic side chains for the transfer to either urea or guanidine hydrochloride solutions. In fact, the free energy of transfer of the side chains, viz., aliphatic ones, is found to be energetically unfavorable in moderately high denaturant concentration. Phenylalanyl, the only aromatic side chain studied here, showed a favorable free energy of transfer to the denaturant solutions. In addition, the values of the favorable free energy obtained in this study are much smaller than the values obtained from the study of the amino acids. The transfer of the glycyl group to the denaturant solutions is exothermic whereas the transfer of the side chains is endothermic in nature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
2. Combination of Glycinamide and Ascorbic Acid Synergistically Promotes Collagen Production and Wound Healing in Human Dermal Fibroblasts
Ji Eun Lee, Yong Chool Boo Biomedicines. 2022 Apr 29;10(5):1029. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines10051029.
The purpose of this study is to present a novel strategy to enhance collagen production in cells. To identify amino acid analogs with excellent collagen production-enhancing effects, human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) were treated with 20 kinds of amidated amino acids and 20 kinds of free amino acids, individually at 1 mM. The results showed that glycinamide enhanced collagen production (secreted collagen level) most effectively. Glycine also enhanced collagen production to a lesser degree. However, other glycine derivatives, such as N-acetyl glycine, N-acetyl glycinamide, glycine methyl ester, glycine ethyl ester, and glycyl glycine, did not show such effects. Glycinamide increased type I and III collagen protein levels without affecting COL1A1 and COL3A1 mRNA levels, whereas transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, 10 ng mL-1) increased both mRNA and protein levels of collagens. Ascorbic acid (AA, 1 mM) increased COL1A1 and COL3A1 mRNA and collagen I protein levels. Unlike TGF-β1, AA and glycinamide did not increase the protein level of α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. The combination of AA and glycinamide synergistically enhanced collagen production and wound closure in HDFs to a level similar to that in cells treated with TGF-β1. AA derivatives, such as magnesium ascorbyl 3-phosphate (MAP), 3-O-ethyl ascorbic acid, ascorbyl 2-O-glucoside, and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate, enhanced collagen production, and the mRNA and protein levels of collagens at 1 mM, and their effects were further enhanced when co-treated with glycinamide. Among AA derivatives, MAP had a similar effect to AA in enhancing wound closure, and its effect was further enhanced by glycinamide. Other AA derivatives had different effects on wound closure. This study provides a new strategy to enhance cell collagen production and wound healing using glycinamide in combination with AA.