1. Ab initio conformational study of N-acetyl-L-proline-N',N'-dimethylamide: a model for polyproline
Young Kee Kang, Hae Sook Park Biophys Chem. 2005 Jan 1;113(1):93-101. doi: 10.1016/j.bpc.2004.08.002.
We report here the results on N-acetyl-l-proline-N',N'-dimethylamide (Ac-Pro-NMe2) as a model for polyproline at the HF/6-31+G(d) level with the conductor-like polarizable continuum model of self-consistent reaction field methods to figure out the conformational preference and cis-trans isomerization of polyproline in the gas phase, chloroform, methanol, and water. The second methyl substitution at the carboxyl amide end results in different backbone structures and their populations from those of N-acetyl-L-proline-N-methylamide (Ac-Pro-NHMe). In particular, all conformations with the C7 hydrogen bond between acetyl and amide ends, which is the most probable conformations of Ac-Pro-NHMe in the gas phase and in nonpolar solvents, disappeared for Ac-Pro-NMe2 even in the gas phase due to the lack of amide hydrogen. The dominant conformation for Ac-Pro-NMe2 is the polyproline II structure with the trans prolyl peptide bond in the gas phase and in solutions. In methanol, the population of the polyproline I structure with the cis prolyl peptide bond is calculated to be larger than that in water, which is consistent with experiments. It should be noted that Ac-Pro-NMe2 has higher rotational barriers for the cis-trans isomerization of the Ac-Pro peptide bond than Ac-Pro-NHMe in the gas phase and in solutions, which could be due to the lack of the intramolecular hydrogen bond between prolyl nitrogen and carboxyl N-H group for the transition state of Ac-Pro-NMe2. The rotational barriers for Ac-Pro-NMe2 are increased with the increase of solvent polarity, as seen for Ac-Pro-NHMe.
3. Supramolecular architectures of N-acetyl-L-proline monohydrate and N-benzyl-L-proline
P Rajalakshmi, N Srinivasan, R V Krishnakumar, Ibrahim Abdul Razak, Mohd Mustaqim Rosli Acta Crystallogr C. 2013 Nov;69(Pt 11):1390-6. doi: 10.1107/S010827011302581X. Epub 2013 Oct 5.
The title compounds, N-acetyl-L-proline monohydrate, C7H11NO3·H2O, (I), and N-benzyl-L-proline, C12H15NO2, (II), crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21 with Z' = 1 and Z' = 2, respectively. The conformation of C(γ) with respect to the carboxylic acid group in (I) is C(γ)-exo or UP pucker, with the pyrrolidine ring twisted, while in (II), it is C(γ)-endo or DOWN, with the pyrrolidine ring assuming an envelope conformation. The crystal packing interactions in (I) are composed of two substructures, one characterized by an R6(6)(24) motif through O-H...O hydrogen bonds and the other by an R4(4)(23) ring through C-H...O interactions. In (II), the crystal packing interactions consist of N-H...O and C-H...O hydrogen bonds. Proline (Pro) exists in its neutral form in (I) and is zwitterionic in (II). This difference in the ionization states of Pro is manifested through the absence of N-H...O and presence of O-H...O interactions in (I), and the presence of N-H...O and absence of O-H...O hydrogen bonds in (II). While C-H...O interactions are present in both (I) and (II), the geometry of the synthons formed by them and their mode of participation in intermolecular interactions is different. Though the title compounds differ significantly in terms of modifications in the Pro skeleton, the differences in their supramolecular structures may also be viewed as a result of the molecular recognition facilitated by the presence of a solvent water molecule in (I) and the zwitterionic state of the amino acid in (II).