1. Reduced brain amyloid burden in elderly patients with narcolepsy type 1
Audrey Gabelle, et al. Ann Neurol. 2019 Jan;85(1):74-83. doi: 10.1002/ana.25373. Epub 2018 Dec 19.
Objective: To determine whether brain amyloid burden in elderly patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is lower than in controls, and to assess in patients with NT1 the relationships between amyloid burden, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) markers of Alzheimer disease (AD), CSF orexin-A, and cognitive profile. Methods: Cognitive and 18 F-florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) data were compared in patients with NT1 aged ≥ 65 years (n = 23) and in age- and sex-matched controls free of clinical dementia selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI; n = 69) and the Multi-Domain Intervention Alzheimer's Prevention Trial (MAPT-18F AV45-PET; n = 23) cohorts. The standardized uptake values (SUVs) of the cortical retention index for 6 regions of interest were computed and averaged to create a mean SUV ratio normalized to 3 subcortical reference regions (cerebellum, pons, and a composite region). A cortical/cerebellum SUV ratio ≥ 1.17 defined positive PET amyloid. Results: Lower cortical amyloid burden was observed in the NT1 than in the ADNI and MAPT-AV45 groups (mean cortical/cerebellum SUV ratios = 0.95 ± 0.15, 1.11 ± 0.18 [p < 0.0001], and 1.14 ± 0.17 [p = 0.0005], respectively). Similar results were obtained with all subcortical reference regions and for all cortical regions of interest, except cingulum. Only 1 patient with NT1 (4.4%) had positive PET amyloid compared with 27.5% in the ADNI and 30.4% in the MAPT-AV45 group. In the NT1 group, cortical or regional amyloid load was not associated with CSF orexin-A, CSF AD biomarkers, or neuropsychological profile. Interpretation: Lower brain amyloid burden, assessed by 18 F-florbetapir PET, in patients with NT1 suggests delayed appearance of amyloid plaques. ANN NEUROL 2019;85:74-83.
2. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: the influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration
Carola I F Janssen, Amanda J Kiliaan Prog Lipid Res. 2014 Jan;53:1-17. doi: 10.1016/j.plipres.2013.10.002. Epub 2013 Oct 24.
Many clinical and animal studies demonstrate the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in neural development and neurodegeneration. This review will focus on involvement of LCPUFA from genesis to senescence. The LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are important components of neuronal membranes, while eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid also affect cardiovascular health and inflammation. In neural development, LCPUFA deficiency can lead to severe disorders like schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Perinatal LCPUFA supplementation demonstrated beneficial effects in neural development in humans and rodents resulting in improved cognition and sensorimotor integration. In normal aging, the effect of LCPUFA on prevention of cognitive impairment will be discussed. LCPUFA are important for neuronal membrane integrity and function, and also contribute in prevention of brain hypoperfusion. Cerebral perfusion can be compromised as result of obesity, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus type 2. Last, we will focus on the role of LCPUFA in most common neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These disorders are characterized by impaired cognition and connectivity and both clinical and animal supplementation studies have shown the potential of LCPUFA to decrease neurodegeneration and inflammation. This review shows that LCPUFA are essential throughout life.
3. Association of BDNF Val66Met With Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Cognition in Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Disease
Yen Ying Lim, et al. JAMA Neurol. 2022 Mar 1;79(3):261-270. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.5181.
Importance: Allelic variation in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism moderates increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of tau and phosphorylated tau 181 (p-tau181), measured using immunoassay, and cognitive decline in presymptomatic dominantly inherited Alzheimer disease (DIAD). Advances in mass spectrometry show that CSF tau phosphorylation occupancy at threonine 181 and 217 (p-tau181/tau181, p-tau217/tau217) increases with initial β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation, while phosphorylation occupancy at threonine 205 (p-tau205/tau205) and level of total tau increase when brain atrophy and clinical symptoms become evident. Objective: To determine whether site-specific tau phosphorylation occupancy (ratio of phosphorylated to unphosphorylated tau) is associated with BDNF Val66Met in presymptomatic and symptomatic DIAD. Design, setting, and participants: This cross-sectional cohort study included participants from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) and Aβ-positive cognitively normal older adults in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Data were collected from 2009 through 2018 at multicenter clinical sites in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia, with no follow-up. DIAN participants provided a CSF sample and completed clinical and cognitive assessments. Data analysis was conducted between March 2020 and March 2021. Main outcomes and measures: Mass spectrometry analysis was used to determine site-specific tau phosphorylation level; tau levels were also measured using immunoassay. Episodic memory and global cognitive composites were computed. Results: Of 374 study participants, 144 were mutation noncarriers, 156 were presymptomatic mutation carriers, and 74 were symptomatic carriers. Of the 527 participants in the network, 153 were excluded because their CSF sample, BDNF status, or both were unavailable. Also included were 125 Aβ-positive cognitively normal older adults in the ADNI. The mean (SD) age of DIAD participants was 38.7 (10.9) years; 43% were women. The mean (SD) age of participants with preclinical sporadic AD was 74.8 (5.6) years; 52% were women. In presymptomatic mutation carriers, compared with Val66 homozygotes, Met66 carriers showed significantly poorer episodic memory (d = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.28-0.95), lower hippocampal volume (d = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.09-0.71), and higher p-tau217/tau217 (d = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.30-0.97), p-tau181/tau181 (d = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.32-0.99), and mass spectrometry total tau (d = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.10-0.76). In symptomatic mutation carriers, Met66 carriers showed significantly poorer global cognition (d = 1.17; 95% CI, 0.65-1.66) and higher p-tau217/tau217 (d = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.05-1.01), mass spectrometry total tau (d = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.28-1.25), and p-tau205/tau205 (d = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.46-1.45), when compared with Val66 homozygotes. In preclinical sporadic AD, Met66 carriers showed poorer episodic memory (d = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.00-0.77) and higher total tau (d = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.07-0.84) and p-tau181 (d = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.07-0.85). Conclusions and relevance: In DIAD, clinical disease stage and BDNF Met66 were associated with cognitive impairment and levels of site-specific tau phosphorylation. This suggests that pharmacological strategies designed to increase neurotrophic support in the presymptomatic stages of AD may be beneficial.