1. Multiplex proteomics identifies novel CSF and plasma biomarkers of early Alzheimer's disease
Christopher D Whelan, et al. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2019 Nov 6;7(1):169. doi: 10.1186/s40478-019-0795-2.
To date, the development of disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has largely focused on the removal of amyloid beta Aβ fragments from the CNS. Proteomic profiling of patient fluids may help identify novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers associated with AD pathology. Here, we applied the Olink™ ProSeek immunoassay to measure 270 CSF and plasma proteins across 415 Aβ- negative cognitively normal individuals (Aβ- CN), 142 Aβ-positive CN (Aβ+ CN), 50 Aβ- mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, 75 Aβ+ MCI patients, and 161 Aβ+ AD patients from the Swedish BioFINDER study. A validation cohort included 59 Aβ- CN, 23 Aβ- + CN, 44 Aβ- MCI and 53 Aβ+ MCI. To compare protein concentrations in patients versus controls, we applied multiple linear regressions adjusting for age, gender, medications, smoking and mean subject-level protein concentration, and corrected findings for false discovery rate (FDR, q < 0.05). We identified, and replicated, altered levels of ten CSF proteins in Aβ+ individuals, including CHIT1, SMOC2, MMP-10, LDLR, CD200, EIF4EBP1, ALCAM, RGMB, tPA and STAMBP (- 0.14 < d < 1.16; q < 0.05). We also identified and replicated alterations of six plasma proteins in Aβ+ individuals OSM, MMP-9, HAGH, CD200, AXIN1, and uPA (- 0.77 < d < 1.28; q < 0.05). Multiple analytes associated with cognitive performance and cortical thickness (q < 0.05). Plasma biomarkers could distinguish AD dementia (AUC = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.87-0.98) and prodromal AD (AUC = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.87) from CN. These findings reemphasize the contributions of immune markers, phospholipids, angiogenic proteins and other biomarkers downstream of, and potentially orthogonal to, Aβ- and tau in AD, and identify candidate biomarkers for earlier detection of neurodegeneration.
2. Recent Progress in Alzheimer's Disease Research, Part 1: Pathology
Francis T Hane, Brenda Y Lee, Zoya Leonenko J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;57(1):1-28. doi: 10.3233/JAD-160882.
The field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) research has grown exponentially over the past few decades, especially since the isolation and identification of amyloid-β from postmortem examination of the brains of AD patients. Recently, the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease (JAD) put forth approximately 300 research reports which were deemed to be the most influential research reports in the field of AD since 2010. JAD readers were asked to vote on these most influential reports. In this 3-part review, we review the results of the 300 most influential AD research reports to provide JAD readers with a readily accessible, yet comprehensive review of the state of contemporary research. Notably, this multi-part review identifies the "hottest" fields of AD research providing guidance for both senior investigators as well as investigators new to the field on what is the most pressing fields within AD research. Part 1 of this review covers pathogenesis, both on a molecular and macro scale. Part 2 review genetics and epidemiology, and part 3 covers diagnosis and treatment. This part of the review, pathology, reviews amyloid-β, tau, prions, brain structure, and functional changes with AD and the neuroimmune response of AD.
3. A phase III randomized trial of gantenerumab in prodromal Alzheimer's disease
Susanne Ostrowitzki, et al. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2017 Dec 8;9(1):95. doi: 10.1186/s13195-017-0318-y.
Background: Gantenerumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) and removes Aβ plaques by Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. In the SCarlet RoAD trial, we assessed the efficacy and safety of gantenerumab in prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study, we investigated gantenerumab over 2 years. Patients were randomized to gantenerumab 105 mg or 225 mg or placebo every 4 weeks by subcutaneous injection. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to week 104 in Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) score. We evaluated treatment effects on cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (all patients) and amyloid positron emission tomography (substudy). A futility analysis was performed once 50% of patients completed 2 years of treatment. Safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose. Results: Of the 3089 patients screened, 797 were randomized. The study was halted early for futility; dosing was discontinued; and the study was unblinded. No differences between groups in the primary (least squares mean [95% CI] CDR-SB change from baseline 1.60 [1.28, 1.91], 1.69 [1.37, 2.01], and 1.73 [1.42, 2.04] for placebo, gantenerumab 105 mg, and gantenerumab 225 mg, respectively) or secondary clinical endpoints were observed. The incidence of generally asymptomatic amyloid-related imaging abnormalities increased in a dose- and APOE ε4 genotype-dependent manner. Exploratory analyses suggested a dose-dependent drug effect on clinical and biomarker endpoints. Conclusions: The study was stopped early for futility, but dose-dependent effects observed in exploratory analyses on select clinical and biomarker endpoints suggest that higher dosing with gantenerumab may be necessary to achieve clinical efficacy. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01224106 . Registered on October 14, 2010.