1. Donanemab (LY3002813) Phase 1b Study in Alzheimer's Disease: Rapid and Sustained Reduction of Brain Amyloid Measured by Florbetapir F18 Imaging
S L Lowe, et al. J Prev Alzheimers Dis. 2021;8(4):414-424. doi: 10.14283/jpad.2021.56.
Background: Donanemab (LY3002813) is an IgG1 antibody directed at an N‑terminal pyroglutamate of amyloid beta epitope that is present only in brain amyloid plaques. Objectives: To assess effects of donanemab on brain amyloid plaque load after single and multiple intravenous doses, as well as pharmacokinetics, safety/tolerability, and immunogenicity. Design: Phase 1b, investigator- and patient-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Setting: Patients recruited at clinical research sites in the United States and Japan. Participants: 61 amyloid plaque-positive patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease and mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease dementia. Intervention: Six cohorts were dosed with donanemab: single dose 10-, 20- or 40- mg/kg (N = 18), multiple doses of 10-mg/kg every 2 weeks for 24 weeks (N = 10), and 10- or 20-mg/kg every 4 weeks for 72 weeks (N=18) or placebo (N = 15).
2. Ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol Rescues AD Deficits by Modulating Microglia Activation but Not Oxidative Stress
Hsin-Ping Liu, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Jack Cheng, Li-Zhong Chang, Meng-Shiun Chang, Li-Wen Su, Tsai-Ni Chuang, Wei-Yong Lin Molecules. 2021 Sep 2;26(17):5338. doi: 10.3390/molecules26175338.
Ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol (EK100) was isolated from the Taiwan-specific medicinal fungus Antrodia camphorata, which is known for its health-promotion and anti-aging effects in folk medicine. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major aging-associated disease. We investigated the efficacy and potential mechanism of ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol for AD symptoms. Drosophila with the pan-neuronal overexpression of human amyloid-β (Aβ) was used as the AD model. We compared the life span, motor function, learning, memory, oxidative stress, and biomarkers of microglia activation and inflammation of the ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol-treated group to those of the untreated control. Ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol treatment effectively improved the life span, motor function, learning, and memory of the AD model compared to the untreated control. Biomarkers of microglia activation and inflammation were reduced, while the ubiquitous lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, and superoxide dismutase activity remained unchanged. In conclusion, ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol rescues AD deficits by modulating microglia activation but not oxidative stress.
3. Comparison of Aβ (1-40, 1-28, 11-22, and 29-40) aggregation processes and inhibition of toxic species generated in early stages of aggregation by a water-soluble ruthenium complex
Mariana P Cali, Lorena M B Pereira, Marcio D Teodoro, Tarciso A Sellani, Elaine G Rodrigues, Rose M Carlos J Inorg Biochem. 2021 Feb;215:111314. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2020.111314. Epub 2020 Nov 21.
Neurotoxicity of amyloid beta (Aβ) species generated in early stages of aggregation has been associated with development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, the field of action of compounds that can identify and inhibit the formation of these species has enlarged considerably. This study investigates the effect and influence of the luminescent, water soluble metal complex cis-[Ru(phen)2(3,4Apy)2]2+ (RuApy, 3,4Apy = 3,4-diaminopyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) on the aggregation process and toxicity of Aβ1-40 and its Aβ1-28, Aβ11-22 and Aβ29-40 fragments since their early stages. The absence of correlation between the conformations generated by Aβ fragments and the full length 1-40 peptide during aggregation and the absence of toxicity of Aβ fragments to PC12 cells in all stages of aggregation indicated that the aggregation pathway and toxicity found to the full-length Aβ1-40 depends on specific interactions between the three fragments. The toxicity of Aβ1-40 was dependent on the aggregation step investigated: species generated at the beginning (15 min) of aggregation were toxic, whereas mature (120 min) fibrils were not. The RuApy complex is not toxic to PC12 cells up to 60 μM, and does not interfere with the aggregation pathway of the Aβ fragments, but interferes with the aggregation of Aβ1-40 and protects the PC12 cells, maintaining 100% of cell viability against the toxicity of Aβ1-40 species generated in early stages of aggregation.