β-Amyloid 4-10

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β-Amyloid 4-10
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β-Amyloid 4-10 is a fragment of Amyloid-β peptide found in plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease.

Peptide Inhibitors
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
(3S)-3-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoyl]amino]-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)pentanoyl]amino]-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoyl]amino]-4-[[(2S)-1-[[2-[[(1S)-1-carboxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]amino]-2-oxoethyl]amino]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid
beta-Amyloid (4-10)
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1. Gardenia jasminoides J.Ellis extract GJ-4 alleviated cognitive deficits of APP/PS1 transgenic mice
Caixia Zang, Hui Liu, Junmei Shang, Hanyu Yang, Lu Wang, Chanjuan Sheng, Zihong Zhang, Xiuqi Bao, Yang Yu, Xinsheng Yao, Dan Zhang Phytomedicine. 2021 Dec;93:153780. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153780. Epub 2021 Sep 27.
Background: Accumulating evidence demonstrates that traditional Chinese medicines that act on multiple targets could effectively treat various multi-etiological diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and so on. Previous studies have shown that crocin richments (GJ-4), Gardenia jasminoides J.Ellis extract, provide neuroprotective effects on cognitive impairments in AD mouse models. However, the mechanism how GJ-4 improves cognition remains still unclear. Purpose: The aim of this study was to uncover the protective effects and underlying mechanism of GJ-4 on PrP-hAβPPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. Methods: APP/PS1 mice were given GJ-4 (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg), donepezil (5 mg/kg) and memantine (5 mg/kg) orally at eight months of age for 12 consecutive weeks. Morris water maze and novel object recognition were conducted to assess the cognitive ability of mice. The release of inflammatory cytokines was determined by RT-PCR assay, and the pathological features of neurons and microglia were assayed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assay. The expression of Aβ-related proteins and signaling pathways were determined by Western blot. Results: The behavioral results revealed that GJ-4 ameliorated the cognitive deficits of APP/PS1 mice measured by Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests. Mechanism studies indicated that GJ-4 significantly decreased β-amyloid (Aβ) level through reducing Aβ production and promoting Aβ degradation. It has been reported that Aβ plaques trigger the hyper-phosphorylation of tau protein in APP/PS1 mice. Consistent with previous studies, hyper-phosphorylation of tau was also occurred in APP/PS1 mice in the present study, and GJ-4 inhibited Tau phosphorylation at different sites. Overwhelming evidence indicates that neuroinflammation stimulated by Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau is involved in the pathological progression of AD. We found that GJ-4 suppressed neuroinflammatory responses in the brain through regulating phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/AKT (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway activation, and subsequent expression of inflammatory proteins and release of inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion: Altogether, GJ-4 ameliorated cognition of APP/PS1 transgenic mice through multiple targets, including Aβ, tau and neuroinflammation. This study provides a solid research basis for further development of GJ-4 as a potential candidate for the treatment of AD.
2. The Gut Microbiota, Kynurenine Pathway, and Immune System Interaction in the Development of Brain Cancer
Mona Dehhaghi, Hamed Kazemi Shariat Panahi, Benjamin Heng, Gilles J Guillemin Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 Nov 19;8:562812. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2020.562812. eCollection 2020.
Human gut microbiota contains a large, complex, dynamic microbial community of approximately 1014 microbes from more than 1,000 microbial species, i.e., equivalent to 4 × 106 genes. Numerous evidence links gut microbiota with human health and diseases. Importantly, gut microbiota is involved in the development and function of the brain through a bidirectional pathway termed as the gut-brain axis. Interaction between gut microbiota and immune responses can modulate the development of neuroinflammation and cancer diseases in the brain. With respect of brain cancer, gut microbiota could modify the levels of antioxidants, amyloid protein and lipopolysaccharides, arginase 1, arginine, cytochrome C, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor signaling (GM-CSF), IL-4, IL-6, IL-13, IL-17A, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (e.g., nitric oxide and peroxynitrite), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), tryptophan, and tumor necrosis factor-β (TGF-β). Through these modifications, gut microbiota can modulate apoptosis, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), autophagy, caspases activation, DNA integrity, microglia dysbiosis, mitochondria permeability, T-cell proliferation and functions, the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways, and tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. The outcome of such interventions could be either oncolytic or oncogenic. This review scrutinizes the oncogenic and oncolytic effects of gut microbiota by classifying the modification mechanisms into (i) amino acid deprivation (arginine and tryptophan); (ii) kynurenine pathway; (iii) microglia dysbiosis; and (iv) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). By delineating the complexity of the gut-microbiota-brain-cancer axis, this review aims to help the research on the development of novel therapeutic strategies that may aid the efficient eradication of brain cancers.
3. Novel Alzheimer Disease Risk Loci and Pathways in African American Individuals Using the African Genome Resources Panel: A Meta-analysis
Brian W Kunkle, Michael Schmidt, et al. JAMA Neurol. 2021 Jan 1;78(1):102-113. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.3536.
Importance: Compared with non-Hispanic White individuals, African American individuals from the same community are approximately twice as likely to develop Alzheimer disease. Despite this disparity, the largest Alzheimer disease genome-wide association studies to date have been conducted in non-Hispanic White individuals. In the largest association analyses of Alzheimer disease in African American individuals, ABCA7, TREM2, and an intergenic locus at 5q35 were previously implicated. Objective: To identify additional risk loci in African American individuals by increasing the sample size and using the African Genome Resource panel. Design, setting, and participants: This genome-wide association meta-analysis used case-control and family-based data sets from the Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium. There were multiple recruitment sites throughout the United States that included individuals with Alzheimer disease and controls of African American ancestry. Analysis began October 2018 and ended September 2019. Main outcomes and measures: Diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Results: A total of 2784 individuals with Alzheimer disease (1944 female [69.8%]) and 5222 controls (3743 female [71.7%]) were analyzed (mean [SD] age at last evaluation, 74.2 [13.6] years). Associations with 4 novel common loci centered near the intracellular glycoprotein trafficking gene EDEM1 (3p26; P = 8.9 × 10-7), near the immune response gene ALCAM (3q13; P = 9.3 × 10-7), within GPC6 (13q31; P = 4.1 × 10-7), a gene critical for recruitment of glutamatergic receptors to the neuronal membrane, and within VRK3 (19q13.33; P = 3.5 × 10-7), a gene involved in glutamate neurotoxicity, were identified. In addition, several loci associated with rare variants, including a genome-wide significant intergenic locus near IGF1R at 15q26 (P = 1.7 × 10-9) and 6 additional loci with suggestive significance (P ≤ 5 × 10-7) such as API5 at 11p12 (P = 8.8 × 10-8) and RBFOX1 at 16p13 (P = 5.4 × 10-7) were identified. Gene expression data from brain tissue demonstrate association of ALCAM, ARAP1, GPC6, and RBFOX1 with brain β-amyloid load. Of 25 known loci associated with Alzheimer disease in non-Hispanic White individuals, only APOE, ABCA7, TREM2, BIN1, CD2AP, FERMT2, and WWOX were implicated at a nominal significance level or stronger in African American individuals. Pathway analyses strongly support the notion that immunity, lipid processing, and intracellular trafficking pathways underlying Alzheimer disease in African American individuals overlap with those observed in non-Hispanic White individuals. A new pathway emerging from these analyses is the kidney system, suggesting a novel mechanism for Alzheimer disease that needs further exploration. Conclusions and relevance: While the major pathways involved in Alzheimer disease etiology in African American individuals are similar to those in non-Hispanic White individuals, the disease-associated loci within these pathways differ.

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