1. Design of Antimicrobial Peptides: Progress Made with Human Cathelicidin LL-37
Guangshun Wang, Jayaram Lakshmaiah Narayana, Biswajit Mishra, Yingxia Zhang, Fangyu Wang, Chunfeng Wang, D Zarena, Tamara Lushnikova, Xiuqing Wang Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1117:215-240. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-3588-4_12.
The incorporation of the innate immune system into humans is essential for survival and health due to the rapid replication of invading microbes and the delayed action of the adaptive immune system. Antimicrobial peptides are important components of human innate immunity. Over 100 such peptides have been identified in various human tissues. Human cathelicidin LL-37 is best studied, and there has been a growing interest in designing new peptides based on LL-37. This chapter describes the alternative processing of the human cathelicidin precursor, protease digestion, and lab cutting of LL-37. Both a synthetic peptide library and structure-based design are utilized to identify the active regions. Although challenging, the determination of the 3D structure of LL-37 enabled the identification of the core antimicrobial region. The minimal region of LL-37 can be function-dependent. We discuss the design and potential applications of LL-37 into antibacterial, antibiofilm, antiviral, antifungal, immune modulating, and anticancer peptides. LL-37 has been engineered into 17BIPHE2, a stable, selective, and potent antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and anticancer peptide. Both 17BIPHE2 and SAAP-148 can eliminate the ESKAPE pathogens and show topical in vivo antibiofilm efficacy. Also discussed are other application strategies, including peptide formulation, antimicrobial implants, and peptide-inducing factors such as vitamin D and sunlight. Finally, we summarize what we learned from peptide design based on human LL-37.
2. Insect antimicrobial peptides and their applications
Hui-Yu Yi, Munmun Chowdhury, Ya-Dong Huang, Xiao-Qiang Yu Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014 Jul;98(13):5807-22. doi: 10.1007/s00253-014-5792-6. Epub 2014 May 9.
Insects are one of the major sources of antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs). Since observation of antimicrobial activity in the hemolymph of pupae from the giant silk moths Samia Cynthia and Hyalophora cecropia in 1974 and purification of first insect AMP (cecropin) from H. cecropia pupae in 1980, over 150 insect AMPs have been purified or identified. Most insect AMPs are small and cationic, and they show activities against bacteria and/or fungi, as well as some parasites and viruses. Insect AMPs can be classified into four families based on their structures or unique sequences: the α-helical peptides (cecropin and moricin), cysteine-rich peptides (insect defensin and drosomycin), proline-rich peptides (apidaecin, drosocin, and lebocin), and glycine-rich peptides/proteins (attacin and gloverin). Among insect AMPs, defensins, cecropins, proline-rich peptides, and attacins are common, while gloverins and moricins have been identified only in Lepidoptera. Most active AMPs are small peptides of 20-50 residues, which are generated from larger inactive precursor proteins or pro-proteins, but gloverins (~14 kDa) and attacins (~20 kDa) are large antimicrobial proteins. In this mini-review, we will discuss current knowledge and recent progress in several classes of insect AMPs, including insect defensins, cecropins, attacins, lebocins and other proline-rich peptides, gloverins, and moricins, with a focus on structural-functional relationships and their potential applications.
3. HPLC analysis and purification of peptides
Colin T Mant, Yuxin Chen, Zhe Yan, Traian V Popa, James M Kovacs, Janine B Mills, Brian P Tripet, Robert S Hodges Methods Mol Biol. 2007;386:3-55. doi: 10.1007/978-1-59745-430-8_1.
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has proved extremely versatile over the past 25 yr for the isolation and purification of peptides varying widely in their sources, quantity and complexity. This article covers the major modes of HPLC utilized for peptides (size-exclusion, ion-exchange, and reversed-phase), as well as demonstrating the potential of a novel mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/cation-exchange approach developed in this laboratory. In addition to the value of these HPLC modes for peptide separations, the value of various HPLC techniques for structural characterization of peptides and proteins will be addressed, e.g., assessment of oligomerization state of peptides/proteins by size-exclusion chromatography and monitoring the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of amphipathic alpha-helical peptides, a vital precursor for the development of novel antimicrobial peptides. The value of capillary electrophoresis for peptide separations is also demonstrated. Preparative reversed-phase chromatography purification protocols for sample loads of up to 200 mg on analytical columns and instrumentation are introduced for both peptides and recombinant proteins.