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Bactofencin A

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Bactofencin A is an antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactobacillus salivarius DPC6502. It has antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.

Functional Peptides
Catalog number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
(3S,9S,12S,15S,18S,21R,26R,29S,32S,35S,38S,41S,47S,52aS)-26-((2S,5S,8S,11S,14S,17S)-5-((1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl)-17,21-diamino-8,11-bis(4-aminobutyl)-2,14-bis(3-guanidinopropyl)-4,7,10,13,16-pentaoxo-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazahenicosanamido)-18-((1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)-38,41-bis(2-amino-2-oxoethyl)-15,29-bis(3-guanidinopropyl)-12,35-bis(4-hydroxybenzyl)-3-((R)-1-hydroxyethyl)-32-isopropyl-9,47-bis(2-(methylthio)ethyl)-1,4,7,10,13,16,19,27,30,33,36,39,42,45,48-pentadecaoxopentacontahydropyrrolo[2,1-y][1,2]dithia[5,8,11,14,17,20,23,26,29,32,35,38,41,44,47]pentadecaazacyclopentacontine-21-carboxylic acid
Lys-Arg-Lys-Lys-His-Arg-Cys-Arg-Val-Tyr-Asn-Asn-Gly-Met-Pro-Thr-Gly-Met-Tyr-Arg-Trp-Cys (Disulfide bridge: Cys7-Cys22)
KRKKHRCRVYNNGMPTGMYRWC (Disulfide bridge: Cys7-Cys22)
1. Protecting bactofencin A to enable its antimicrobial activity using mesoporous matrices
Edel Durack, Sarah Mallen, Paula M O'Connor, Mary C Rea, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill, Sarah Hudson Int J Pharm. 2019 Mar 10;558:9-17. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.12.035. Epub 2018 Dec 19.
There is huge global concern surrounding the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and this is resulting in an inability to treat infectious diseases. This is due to a lack of new antimicrobials coming to the market and irresponsible use of traditional antibiotics. Bactofencin A, a novel antimicrobial peptide which shows potential as an antibiotic, is susceptible to enzyme degradation. To improve its solution stability and inherent activity, bactofencin A was loaded onto a traditional silica mesoporous matrix, SBA-15, and a periodic mesoporous organosilane, MSE. The loading of bactofencin A was considerably higher onto SBA-15 than MSE due to the hydrophilic nature of SBA-15. While there was no detectable peptide released from SBA-15 into phosphate buffered saline and only 20% of the peptide loaded onto MSE was released, the loaded matrices showed enhanced activity compared to the free peptide during in vitro antimicrobial assays. In addition, the mesoporous matrices were found to protect bactofencin A against enzymatic degradation where results showed that the SBA-15 and MSE with loaded bactofencin A exposed to trypsin inhibited the growth of S. aureus while a large decrease in activity was observed for free bactofencin upon exposure to trypsin. Thus, the activity and stability of bactofencin A can be enhanced using mesoporous matrices and these matrices may enable its potential development as a novel antibiotic. This work also shows that in silico studies looking at surface functional group and size complementarity between the peptide and the protective matrix could enable the systemic selection of a mesoporous matrix for individual bacteriocins with potential antimicrobial therapeutic properties.
2. Structure-Activity Relationships of the Bacteriocin Bactofencin A and Its Interaction with the Bacterial Membrane
François Bédard, Ismail Fliss, Eric Biron ACS Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 8;5(2):199-207. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.8b00204. Epub 2018 Dec 24.
The antimicrobial peptide bactofencin A is an unmodified non-pediocin-like bacteriocin that inhibits several clinically relevant pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Here we report the synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of bactofencin A and novel analogues thereof. Synthetic bactofencin A was a potent inhibitor of L. monocytogenes (MIC = 8.0 μM) and S. aureus (MIC = 4.0 μM), similar to the bacteriocin produced naturally by Lactobacillus salivarius. Of particular interest is the fact that linear analogues lacking the disulfide bond found in bactofencin A were as potent and also active against several strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and one strain of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA). Supported by the structure-activity relationship study, investigation of the interaction of bactofencin A with bacterial membrane by molecular dynamics simulations showed the importance of the positively charged N-terminal tail for peptide-membrane interaction. These results suggest that the C-terminal macrocycle is involved in target protein binding and bacterial growth inhibition.
3. Bactofencin A, a new type of cationic bacteriocin with unusual immunity
Eileen F O'Shea, Paula M O'Connor, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill mBio. 2013 Oct 29;4(6):e00498-13. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00498-13.
Bacteriocin production is an important probiotic trait of intestinal bacteria. In this study, we identify a new type of bacteriocin, bactofencin A, produced by a porcine intestinal isolate Lactobacillus salivarius DPC6502, and assess its potency against pathogenic species including Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. Genome sequencing of the bacteriocin producer revealed bfnA, which encodes the mature and highly basic (pI 10.59), 22-amino-acid defensin-like peptide. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectral analysis determined that bactofencin A has a molecular mass of 2,782 Da and contains two cysteine residues that form an intramolecular disulfide bond. Although an ABC transporter and transport accessory protein were also present within the bacteriocin gene cluster, a classical bacteriocin immunity gene was not detected. Interestingly, a dltB homologue was identified downstream of bfnA. DltB is usually encoded within the dlt operon of many Gram-positive bacteria. It is responsible for d-alanylation of teichoic acids in the cell wall and has previously been associated with bacterial resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Heterologous expression of this gene conferred bactofencin A-specific immunity on sensitive strains of L. salivarius and S. aureus (although not L. monocytogenes), establishing its role in bacteriocin immunity. An analysis of the distribution of bfnA revealed that it was present in four additional isolates derived from porcine origin and absent from five human isolates, suggesting that its distribution is host specific. Given its novelty, we anticipate that bactofencin A represents the prototype of a new class of bacteriocins characterized as being cationic, with a DltB homologue providing a cognate immunity function. Importance: This study describes the identification, purification, and characterization of bactofencin A, a novel type of bacteriocin produced by L. salivarius DPC6502. Interestingly, bactofencin A is not similar to any other known bacteriocin but instead shares similarity with eukaryotic cationic antimicrobial peptides, and here, we demonstrate that it inhibits two medically significant pathogens. Genome sequence analysis of the producing strain also revealed the presence of an atypical dltB homologue in the bacteriocin gene cluster, which was lacking a classical bacteriocin immunity gene. Furthermore, cloning this gene rendered sensitive strains resistant to the bacteriocin, thereby establishing its role in providing cognate bacteriocin immunity. Four additional L. salivarius isolates, also of porcine origin, were found to contain the bacteriocin biosynthesis genes and successfully produced bactofencin A, while these genes were absent from five human-derived strains investigated.
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