1.Quantitative analysis of T cell receptor complex interaction sites using genetically encoded photo-cross-linkers.
Wang W1, Li T, Felsovalyi K, Chen C, Cardozo T, Krogsgaard M. ACS Chem Biol. 2014 Sep 19;9(9):2165-72. doi: 10.1021/cb500351s. Epub 2014 Jul 30.
The T cell receptor (TCR)-cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) signaling complex plays an important role in initiation of adaptive immune responses, but weak interactions have obstructed delineation of the individual TCR-CD3 subunit interactions during T cell signaling. Here, we demonstrate that unnatural amino acids (UAA) can be used to photo-cross-link subunits of TCR-CD3 on the cell surface. Incorporating UAA in mammalian cells is usually a low efficiency process. In addition, TCR-CD3 is composed of eight subunits and both TCR and CD3 chains are required for expression on the cell surface. Photo-cross-linking of UAAs for studying protein complexes such as TCR-CD3 is challenging due to the difficulty of transfecting and expressing multisubunit protein complexes in cells combined with the low efficiency of UAA incorporation. Here, we demonstrate that by systematic optimization, we can incorporate UAA in TCR-CD3 with high efficiency. Accordingly, the incorporated UAA can be used for site-specific photo-cross-linking experiments to pinpoint protein interaction sites, as well as to confirm interaction sites identified by X-ray crystallography.
2.The tandem chain extension aldol reaction used for synthesis of ketomethylene tripeptidomimetics targeting hPEPT1.
Thorn K1, Nielsen CU, Jakobsen P, Steffansen B, Zercher CK, Begtrup M. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Aug 1;21(15):4597-601. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.05.108. Epub 2011 Jun 6.
The rationale for targeting the human di-/tripeptide transporter hPEPT1 for oral drug delivery has been well established by several drug and prodrug cases. The aim of this study was to synthesize novel ketomethylene modified tripeptidomimetics and to investigate their binding affinity for hPEPT1. Three related tripeptidomimetics of the structure H-Phe-ψ[COCH(2)]-Ser(Bz)-X(aa)-OH were synthesized applying the tandem chain extension aldol reaction, where amino acid derived β-keto imides were stereoselectively converted to α-substituted γ-keto imides. In addition, three corresponding tripeptides, composed of amide bonds, were synthesized for comparison of binding affinities. The six investigated compounds were all defined as high affinity ligands (K(i)-values <0.5 mM) for hPEPT1 by measuring the concentration dependent inhibition of apical [(14)C]Gly-Sar uptake in Caco-2 cells. Consequently, the ketomethylene replacement for the natural amide bond and α-side chain modifications appears to offer a promising strategy to modify tripeptidic structures while maintaining a high affinity for hPEPT1.
3.Bromine isotopic signature facilitates de novo sequencing of peptides in free-radical-initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) mass spectrometry.
Nam J1, Kwon H, Jang I, Jeon A, Moon J, Lee SY, Kang D, Han SY, Moon B, Oh HB. J Mass Spectrom. 2015 Feb;50(2):378-87. doi: 10.1002/jms.3539.
We recently showed that free-radical-initiated peptide sequencing mass spectrometry (FRIPS MS) assisted by the remarkable thermochemical stability of (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO) is another attractive radical-driven peptide fragmentation MS tool. Facile homolytic cleavage of the bond between the benzylic carbon and the oxygen of the TEMPO moiety in o-TEMPO-Bz-C(O)-peptide and the high reactivity of the benzylic radical species generated in •Bz-C(O)-peptide are key elements leading to extensive radical-driven peptide backbone fragmentation. In the present study, we demonstrate that the incorporation of bromine into the benzene ring, i.e. o-TEMPO-Bz(Br)-C(O)-peptide, allows unambiguous distinction of the N-terminal peptide fragments from the C-terminal fragments through the unique bromine doublet isotopic signature. Furthermore, bromine substitution does not alter the overall radical-driven peptide backbone dissociation pathways of o-TEMPO-Bz-C(O)-peptide.
4.Lanthanide chelates of (bis)-hydroxymethyl-substituted DTTA with potential application as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging.
Silvério S1, Torres S, Martins AF, Martins JA, André JP, Helm L, Prata MI, Santos AC, Geraldes CF. Dalton Trans. 2009 Jun 28;(24):4656-70. doi: 10.1039/b823402g. Epub 2009 Apr 22.
A novel bis-hydroxymethyl-substituted DTTA chelator N'-Bz-C(4,4')-(CH(2)OH)(2)-DTTA () and its DTPA analogue C(4,4')-(CH(2)OH)(2)-DTPA () were synthesized and characterized. A variable-temperature (1)H NMR spectroscopy study of the solution dynamics of their diamagnetic (La) and paramagnetic (Sm, Eu) Ln(3+) complexes showed them to be rigid when compared with analogous Ln(3+)-DTTA and Ln(3+)-DTPA complexes, as a result of their C(4,4')-(CH(2)OH)(2) ligand backbone substitution. The parameters that govern the water (1)H relaxivity of the [Gd()(H(2)O)(2)](-) and [Gd()(H(2)O)](2-) complexes were obtained by (17)O and (1)H NMR relaxometry. While the relaxometric behaviour of the [Gd()(H(2)O)](2-) complex is very similar to the parent [Gd(DTPA)(H(2)O)](2-) system, the [Gd()(H(2)O)(2)](-) complex displays higher relaxivity, due to the presence of two inner sphere water molecules and an accelerated, near optimal water exchange rate. The [Gd()(H(2)O)(2)](-) complex interacts weakly with human serum albumin (HSA), and its fully bound relaxivity is limited by slow water exchange, as monitored by (1)H NMR relaxometry.