1. Synthesis of bis-ureas from bis(o-nitrophenyl) carbonate
Maria-Cristina Turoczi, Monika Simon, Valentin Badea, Carol Csunderlik Molecules. 2008 Dec 15;13(12):3192-7. doi: 10.3390/molecules13123192.
A general method for the preparation of bis-ureas from bis(o-nitrophenyl) carbonate has been developed. Directional urea synthesis is achieved by sequential amine addition to bis(o-nitrophenyl) carbonate in two steps: in the first step bis(o-nitrophenyl) carbonate is reacted with benzylamine to form benzyl-o-nitrophenyl carbamate; in the second step the carbamate is reacted with a variety of diamines in toluene to yield bis-ureas.
2. Endocytosis-Independent and Cancer-Selective Cytosolic Protein Delivery via Reversible Tagging with LAT1 substrate
Ziyin Zhao, Xun Liu, Mengying Hou, Renxiang Zhou, Fan Wu, Jing Yan, Wei Li, Yujia Zheng, Qinmeng Zhong, Yongbing Chen, Lichen Yin Adv Mater. 2022 Sep;34(35):e2110560. doi: 10.1002/adma.202110560. Epub 2022 Jul 28.
Protein drugs targeting intracellular machineries have shown profound therapeutic potentials, but their clinical utilities are greatly hampered by the lack of efficient cytosolic delivery techniques. Existing strategies mainly rely on nanocarriers or conjugated cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which often have drawbacks such as materials complexity/toxicity, lack of cell specificity, and endolysosomal entrapment. Herein, a unique carrier-free approach is reported for mediating cancer-selective and endocytosis-free cytosolic protein delivery. Proteins are sequentially modified with 4-nitrophenyl 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl) benzyl carbonate as the H2 O2 -responsive domain and 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine as the substrate of l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1). Thus, the pro-protein can be directly transported into tumor cells by overexpressed LAT1 on cell membranes, bypassing endocytosis and endolysosomal entrapment. In the cytosol, overproduced H2 O2 restores the protein structure and activity. Using this technique, versatile proteins are delivered into tumor cells with robust efficiency, including toxins, enzymes, CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein, and antibodies. Furthermore, intravenously injected pro-protein of saporin shows potent anticancer efficacy in 4T1-tumor-bearing mice, without provoking systemic toxicity. Such a facile and versatile pro-protein platform may benefit the development of protein pharmaceuticals.
3. N-Butyl-N-methyl-4-nitrophenyl carbamate as a specific active site titrator of bile-salt-dependent lipases
J D Fourneron, N Abouakil, C Chaillan, D Lombardo Eur J Biochem. 1991 Mar 14;196(2):295-303. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb15817.x.
The effect of a series of synthetic carbamates on the human (milk or pancreatic) bile-salt-dependent lipase (cholesterol esterase) was examined. N-isopropyl-O-phenyl, N-methyl-O-phenyl, N-butyl-(4-nitrophenyl), N-phenyl-(4-nitrophenyl), N-butyl-N-methyl and N-pentyl-O-phenyl carbamates were inhibitors of the enzyme activity, while O-isopropyl-N-phenyl, O-methyl-N-phenyl, O-benzyl-N-isopropyl and O-cyclohexyl-N-phenyl carbamates were not even recognized by the enzyme. The N-alkyl chain length is essential for the enzyme inhibition and N-butyl-(4-nitrophenyl) or N-pentyl-O-phenyl carbamates are more potent inhibitors than N-methyl-O-phenyl or N-isopropyl carbamates. The inhibition by reactive carbamates fits the criteria for mechanism-based inhibition: the inhibition is first-order with time, shows saturation kinetics with increasing carbamate concentration and leads to an inactive stoichiometric enzyme-inhibitor complex; the enzyme activity can be protected by a competitive inhibitor. Evidence is shown that the enzymatic nucleophilic attack of carbamates is directed at the carbonyl carbon atom and not the nitrogen atom. The inhibition of bile-salt-dependent lipase does not occur consecutive to the formation of a reactive isocyanate derivative of carbamate but via a tetrahedral intermediate involving essential residues implicated in the enzyme catalytic site. This intermediate evolves by liberation of alcohol (or phenol) and formation of an inactive carbamyl enzyme. Among the carbamates tested, N-butyl-N-methyl-(4-nitrophenyl) carbamate specifically inhibits the bile-salt-dependent lipase; the release of 4-nitrophenol from this carbamate is directly proportional to the enzyme inhibition and it may be defined as a specific active-site titrator for bile-salt-dependent lipases.