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BOC-Amino Acids
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
(R)-2-Benzyl 1-tert-butyl 5-oxopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate; Boc-D-Pyroglutamic acid benzyl ester
≥ 95%
1.219±0.06 g/cm3
Boiling Point
1. Mapping the Pathway and Dynamics of Bestatin Inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum M1 Aminopeptidase PfA-M1
Wei Yang, Blake T Riley, Xiangyun Lei, Benjamin T Porebski, Itamar Kass, Ashley M Buckle, Sheena McGowan ChemMedChem. 2018 Dec 6;13(23):2504-2513. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.201800563. Epub 2018 Nov 9.
The M1 metallo-aminopeptidase from Plasmodium falciparum, PfA-M1, is an attractive drug target for the design of new antimalarials. Bestatin, a broad-spectrum metalloprotease inhibitor, is a moderate inhibitor of PfA-M1, and has been used to provide structure-activity relationships to inform drug design. The crystal structure of PfA-M1 with bestatin bound within its active site has been determined; however, dynamics of the inhibitor and the association or dissociation pathway have yet to be characterized. Here we present an all-atom molecular dynamics study where we have generated a hidden Markov state model from 2.3 μs of molecular dynamics simulation. Our hidden Markov state model identifies five macrostates that clearly show the events involved in bestatin dissociation from the PfA-M1 active site. The results show for the first time that bestatin can escape the substrate specificity pockets of the enzyme, primarily due to weak interactions within the pockets. Our approach identifies relevant conformational sampling of the inhibitor inside the enzyme and the protein dynamics that could be exploited to produce potent and selective inhibitors that can differentiate between similar members of the M1 aminopeptidase superfamily.
2. Structural basis for the inhibition of the essential Plasmodium falciparum M1 neutral aminopeptidase
Sheena McGowan, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 24;106(8):2537-42. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0807398106. Epub 2009 Feb 5.
Plasmodium falciparum parasites are responsible for the major global disease malaria, which results in >2 million deaths each year. With the rise of drug-resistant malarial parasites, novel drug targets and lead compounds are urgently required for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we address this important problem by targeting the malarial neutral aminopeptidases that are involved in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and essential for the provision of amino acids used for parasite growth and development within the erythrocyte. We characterize the structure and substrate specificity of one such aminopeptidase, PfA-M1, a validated drug target. The X-ray crystal structure of PfA-M1 alone and in complex with the generic inhibitor, bestatin, and a phosphinate dipeptide analogue with potent in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity, hPheP[CH(2)]Phe, reveals features within the protease active site that are critical to its function as an aminopeptidase and can be exploited for drug development. These results set the groundwork for the development of antimalarial therapeutics that target the neutral aminopeptidases of the parasite.
3. KBE009: An antimalarial bestatin-like inhibitor of the Plasmodium falciparum M1 aminopeptidase discovered in an Ugi multicomponent reaction-derived peptidomimetic library
Jorge González-Bacerio, et al. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017 Sep 1;25(17):4628-4636. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2017.06.047. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
Malaria is a global human parasitic disease mainly caused by the protozoon Plasmodium falciparum. Increased parasite resistance to current drugs determines the relevance of finding new treatments against new targets. A novel target is the M1 alanyl-aminopeptidase from P. falciparum (PfA-M1), which is essential for parasite development in human erythrocytes and is inhibited by the pseudo-peptide bestatin. In this work, we used a combinatorial multicomponent approach to produce a library of peptidomimetics and screened it for the inhibition of recombinant PfA-M1 (rPfA-M1) and the in vitro growth of P. falciparum erythrocytic stages (3D7 and FcB1 strains). Dose-response studies with selected compounds allowed identifying the bestatin-based peptidomimetic KBE009 as a submicromolar rPfA-M1 inhibitor (Ki=0.4μM) and an in vitro antimalarial compound as potent as bestatin (IC50=18μM; without promoting erythrocyte lysis). At therapeutic-relevant concentrations, KBE009 is selective for rPfA-M1 over porcine APN (a model of these enzymes from mammals), and is not cytotoxic against HUVEC cells. Docking simulations indicate that this compound binds PfA-M1 without Zn2+ coordination, establishing mainly hydrophobic interactions and showing a remarkable shape complementarity with the active site of the enzyme. Moreover, KBE009 inhibits the M1-type aminopeptidase activity (Ala-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin substrate) in isolated live parasites with a potency similar to that of the antimalarial activity (IC50=82μM), strongly suggesting that the antimalarial effect is directly related to the inhibition of the endogenous PfA-M1. These results support the value of this multicomponent strategy to identify PfA-M1 inhibitors, and make KBE009 a promising hit for drug development against malaria.

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