1.Targeted tyrosine iodination in a multi-tyrosine vasopressin analog.
Durr JA1, Blankenship M, Chauhan SS, Pennington MW. J Pept Sci. 2007 Nov;13(11):756-61.
Iodination of the conserved 2-tyrosine (Tyr(2)) residue in the pressin and tocin rings of arginine- or lysine-vasopressin (AVP or LVP), and oxytocin, respectively, impairs binding to their respective receptors. Synthetic antagonists that have their Tyr(2) either replaced by another amino acid or irreversibly blocked by an O-methyl or O-ethyl ether, but have, instead, an iodinatable phenol moiety outside the pressin/tocin ring, are used for radiolabeling. We explored another approach to avoid iodinating Tyr(2) by capping this residue with a reversible O-acetyl group, incorporated during peptide synthesis. The O-acetyl-Tyr(2) LVP peptide, with a free iodinatable tyrosine attached to the epsilon-amine of 8-lysine, is iodinated at a neutral pH and purified by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) at an acidic pH, conditions under which the O-acetyl groups are stable. Deacetylation with hydroxylamine is selective, and leaves intact the disulfide bridge.
Allcock HR1, Singh A, Ambrosio AM, Laredo WR. Biomacromolecules. 2003 Nov-Dec;4(6):1646-53.
Tyrosine-functionalized polyphosphazenes were synthesized, and their hydrolytic stability, pH-sensitive behavior, and hydrogel-forming capabilities were investigated. The physical and chemical properties of the polymers varied with the type of linkage between the tyrosine unit and phosphazene backbone. Poly[(ethyl glycinat-N-yl)(ethyl tyrosinat-N-yl)phophazenes] (linkage via the amino group of tyrosine) were found to be hydrolytically erodible. The rate of hydrolysis was dependent on the ratio of the two side groups, the slowest rate being associated with the highest concentration of tyrosine. The hydrolysis products were identified as phosphates, tyrosine, glycine, ammonia, and ethanol derived from the ester group. The hydrolytically stable phenolic-linked tyrosine derivatives were prepared from N-t-BOC-L-tyrosine methyl ester and alkoxy-based cosubstituents. Polyphosphazenes with both propoxy and phenolic-linked tyrosine side groups showed a pH-sensitive solubility behavior, which was dependent on the ratio and nature of the two side groups.
3.Tyrosine analogues for probing proton-coupled electron transfer processes in peptides and proteins.
Nara SJ1, Valgimigli L, Pedulli GF, Pratt DA. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Jan 20;132(2):863-72. doi: 10.1021/ja907921w.
A series of amino acids analogous to tyrosine, but differing in the physicochemical properties of the aryl alcohol side chain, have been prepared and characterized. These compounds are expected to be useful in understanding the relationships between structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics in long-range proton-coupled electron transfer processes in peptides and proteins. Systematic changes in the acidity, redox potential, and O-H bond strength of the tyrosine side chain could be induced upon substituting the phenol for pyridinol and pyrimidinol moieties. Further modulation was possible by introducing methyl and t-butyl substitution in the position ortho to the phenolic hydroxyl. The unnatural amino acids were prepared by Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of the corresponding halogenated aryl alcohol protected as their benzyl ethers with an organozinc reagent derived from N-Boc L-serine carboxymethyl ester. Subsequent debenzylation by catalytic hydrogenation yielded the tyrosine analogues in good yield.
4.Synthesis and biological activity of novel amino acid-(N'-benzoyl) hydrazide and amino acid-(N'-nicotinoyl) hydrazide derivatives.
Khattab SN1. Molecules. 2005 Sep 30;10(9):1218-28.
The coupling reaction of benzoic acid and nicotinic acid hydrazides with N- protected L-amino acids including valine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and tyrosine is reported. The target compounds, N-Boc-amino acid-(N;-benzoyl)- and N- Boc-amino acid-(N;-nicotinoyl) hydrazides 5a-5e and 6a-6e were prepared in very high yields and purity using N-[(dimethylamino)-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl- methylene]-N-methyl-methanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide (HATU) as coupling reagent. The antimicrobial activity of the Cu and Cd complexes of the designed compounds was tested. The products were deprotected affording the corresponding amino acid-(N;-benzoyl) hydrazide hydrochloride salts (7a-7e) and amino acid-(N;- nicotinoyl) hydrazide hydrochloride salts (8a-8e). These compounds and their Cu and Cd complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity. Several compounds showed comparable activity to that of ampicillin against S.