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A Boc PNA monomer that is a building block for the synthesis of PNA oligomers.

Boc PNA Monomers
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
2-[[2-[2-[(4-methoxyphenyl)methylsulfanyl]-4-oxopyrimidin-1-yl]acetyl]-[2-[(2-methylpropan-2-yl)oxycarbonylamino]ethyl]amino]acetic acid
White to Off-white Powder
1.3±0.1 g/cm3
-20°C for long term storage
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1. Recommendations for the nomenclature of cognitive change associated with anaesthesia and surgery-2018
L Evered, et al. Br J Anaesth. 2018 Nov;121(5):1005-1012. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2017.11.087. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
Cognitive change affecting patients after anaesthesia and surgery has been recognised for more than 100 yr. Research into cognitive change after anaesthesia and surgery accelerated in the 1980s when multiple studies utilised detailed neuropsychological testing for assessment of cognitive change after cardiac surgery. This body of work consistently documented decline in cognitive function in elderly patients after anaesthesia and surgery, and cognitive changes have been identified up to 7.5 yr afterwards. Importantly, other studies have identified that the incidence of cognitive change is similar after non-cardiac surgery. Other than the inclusion of non-surgical control groups to calculate postoperative cognitive dysfunction, research into these cognitive changes in the perioperative period has been undertaken in isolation from cognitive studies in the general population. The aim of this work is to develop similar terminology to that used in cognitive classifications of the general population for use in investigations of cognitive changes after anaesthesia and surgery. A multispecialty working group followed a modified Delphi procedure with no prespecified number of rounds comprised of three face-to-face meetings followed by online editing of draft versions. Two major classification guidelines [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) and National Institute for Aging and the Alzheimer Association (NIA-AA)] are used outside of anaesthesia and surgery, and may be useful for inclusion of biomarkers in research. For clinical purposes, it is recommended to use the DSM-5 nomenclature. The working group recommends that 'perioperative neurocognitive disorders' be used as an overarching term for cognitive impairment identified in the preoperative or postoperative period. This includes cognitive decline diagnosed before operation (described as neurocognitive disorder); any form of acute event (postoperative delirium) and cognitive decline diagnosed up to 30 days after the procedure (delayed neurocognitive recovery) and up to 12 months (postoperative neurocognitive disorder).
2. Blood Pressure Management for Ischemic Stroke in the First 24 Hours
Philip M Bath, Lili Song, Gisele S Silva, Eva Mistry, Nils Petersen, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Mikael Mazighi, Oh Young Bang, Else Charlotte Sandset Stroke. 2022 Apr;53(4):1074-1084. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.036143. Epub 2022 Mar 16.
High blood pressure (BP) is common after ischemic stroke and associated with a poor functional outcome and increased mortality. The conundrum then arises on whether to lower BP to improve outcome or whether this will worsen cerebral perfusion due to aberrant cerebral autoregulation. A number of large trials of BP lowering have failed to change outcome whether treatment was started prehospital in the community or hospital. Hence, nuances on how to manage high BP are likely, including whether different interventions are needed for different causes, the type and timing of the drug, how quickly BP is lowered, and the collateral effects of the drug, including on cerebral perfusion and platelets. Specific scenarios are also important, including when to lower BP before, during, and after intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy/thrombectomy, when it may be necessary to raise BP, and when antihypertensive drugs taken before stroke should be restarted. This narrative review addresses these and other questions. Although further large trials are ongoing, it is increasingly likely that there is no simple answer. Different subgroups of patients may need to have their BP lowered (eg, before or after thrombolysis), left alone, or elevated.
3. Left Ventricular Unloading Is Associated With Lower Mortality in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock Treated With Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Results From an International, Multicenter Cohort Study
Benedikt Schrage, et al. Circulation. 2020 Dec;142(22):2095-2106. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.048792. Epub 2020 Oct 9.
Background: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is increasingly used to treat cardiogenic shock. However, VA-ECMO might hamper myocardial recovery. The Impella unloads the left ventricle. This study aimed to evaluate whether left ventricular unloading in patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO was associated with lower mortality. Methods: Data from 686 consecutive patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO with or without left ventricular unloading using an Impella at 16 tertiary care centers in 4 countries were collected. The association between left ventricular unloading and 30-day mortality was assessed by Cox regression models in a 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort. Results: Left ventricular unloading was used in 337 of the 686 patients (49%). After matching, 255 patients with left ventricular unloading were compared with 255 patients without left ventricular unloading. In the matched cohort, left ventricular unloading was associated with lower 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.63-0.98]; P=0.03) without differences in various subgroups. Complications occurred more frequently in patients with left ventricular unloading: severe bleeding in 98 (38.4%) versus 45 (17.9%), access site-related ischemia in 55 (21.6%) versus 31 (12.3%), abdominal compartment in 23 (9.4%) versus 9 (3.7%), and renal replacement therapy in 148 (58.5%) versus 99 (39.1%). Conclusions: In this international, multicenter cohort study, left ventricular unloading was associated with lower mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO, despite higher complication rates. These findings support use of left ventricular unloading in patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO and call for further validation, ideally in a randomized, controlled trial.
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