1. Structure-activity analysis of brevinin 1E amide, an antimicrobial peptide from Rana esculenta
M Y Kwon, S Y Hong, K H Lee Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Sep 8;1387(1-2):239-48. doi: 10.1016/s0167-4838(98)00123-x.
Brevinin 1E, consisting of 24 amino acid residues, from Rana esculenta has potent antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. From a structural point of view, this peptide has a N-terminal hydrophobic region, a proline hinge region in the middle and a C-terminal loop region delineated by an intra-disulfide bridge, which is a common structural feature of antimicrobial peptides from Rana species. To investigate the structural features for antimicrobial and hemolytic activity, truncated and linearized brevinin 1E amides were synthesized and characterized. A deletion of three amino acids from the N-terminal region did not greatly affect antimicrobial activity but dramatically reduced hemolytic activity. The contribution of the intra-disulfide bridge to antimicrobial and hemolytic activity was somewhat different between brevinin 1E amide and truncated fragments. In brevinin 1E amide, the elimination of the intra-disulfide bridge did not greatly affect antimicrobial and hemolytic activity whereas the elimination of the intra-disulfide bridge in the truncated fragments did not decrease antimicrobial activity but did decrease hemolytic activity. Circular dichroism spectra and the retention time on the C18 reverse phase column revealed that the intra-disulfide bridge (i, i+6) formed an amphipathic loop which increased hydrophobicity and helped to induce the alpha-helical structure in the membrane-mimetic environment. Even though the intra-disulfide bridge and the N-terminal region were responsible for the alpha-helical structure and hydrophobicity, these two structural features were not essential for antimicrobial activity. The hemolytic activity of brevinin 1E amide and its analogs also correlated well with the retention time rather than the alpha-helicity.
2. Study on the Structure-Activity Relationship of an Antimicrobial Peptide, Brevinin-2GUb, from the Skin Secretion of Hylarana guentheri
Yaxian Lin, Siyan Liu, Xinping Xi, Chengbang Ma, Lei Wang, Xiaoling Chen, Zhanzhong Shi, Tianbao Chen, Chris Shaw, Mei Zhou Antibiotics (Basel). 2021 Jul 22;10(8):895. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10080895.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered potential alternatives to antibiotics due to their advantages in solving antibiotic resistance. Brevinin-2GUb, which was extracted from the skin secretion of Hylarana guentheri, is a peptide with modest antimicrobial activity. Several analogues were designed to explore the structure-activity relationship and enhance its activity. In general, the Rana box is not an indispensable motif for the bioactivity of Brevinin-2GUb, and the first to the 19th amino acids at the N-terminal end are active fragments, such that shortening the peptide while maintaining its bioactivity is a promising strategy for the optimisation of peptides. Keeping a complete hydrophobic face and increasing the net charges are key factors for antimicrobial activity. With the increase of cationic charges, α-helical proportion, and amphipathicity, the activity of t-Brevinin-2GUb-6K (tB2U-6K), in combatting bacteria, drastically improved, especially against Gram-negative bacteria, and the peptide attained the capacity to kill clinical isolates and fungi as well, which made it possible to address some aspects of antibiotic resistance. Thus, peptide tB2U-6K, with potent antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the capacity to inhibit the growth of biofilm, and low toxicity against normal cells, is of value to be further developed into an antimicrobial agent.
3. Evaluating the Bioactivity of a Novel Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Peptide Brevinin-1GHa from the Frog Skin Secretion of Hylarana guentheri and Its Analogues
Qi Chen, Peng Cheng, Chengbang Ma, Xinping Xi, Lei Wang, Mei Zhou, Huimin Bian, Tianbao Chen Toxins (Basel). 2018 Oct 13;10(10):413. doi: 10.3390/toxins10100413.
Many antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified from the skin secretion of the frog Hylarana guentheri (H.guentheri), including Temporin, Brevinin-1, and Brevinin-2. In this study, an antimicrobial peptide named Brevinin-1GHa was identified for the first time by using 'shotgun' cloning. The primary structure was also confirmed through mass spectral analysis of the skin secretion purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). There was a Rana-box (CKISKKC) in the C-terminal of Brevinin-1GHa, which formed an intra-disulfide bridge. To detect the significance of Rana-box and reduce the hemolytic activity, we chemically synthesized Brevinin-1GHb (without Rana-box) and Brevinin-1GHc (Rana-box in central position). Brevinin-1GHa exhibited a strong and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against seven microorganisms, while Brevinin-1GHb only inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which indicates Rana-box was necessary for the antimicrobial activity of Brevinin-1GHa. The results of Brevinin-1GHc suggested transferring Rana-box to the central position could reduce the hemolytic activity, but the antimicrobial activity also declined. Additionally, Brevinin-1GHa demonstrated the capability of permeating cell membrane and eliminating biofilm of S. aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Candida albicans (C. albicans). The discovery of this research may provide some novel insights into natural antimicrobial drug design.