1. Targeting glycolysis in leukemia: a novel inhibitor 3-BrOP in combination with rapamycin
Lauren J Akers, Wendy Fang, Alejandro G Levy, Anna R Franklin, Peng Huang, Patrick A Zweidler-McKay Leuk Res. 2011 Jun;35(6):814-20. doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2010.12.028. Epub 2011 Feb 12.
Rapidly proliferating solid tumor cells are often dependent on glycolysis for ATP production even in normoxia (the Warburg effect), however it is not yet clear whether acute leukemias have a similarly increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis. We report that all acute leukemia subtypes (pre-B ALL, T-ALL and AML) demonstrated growth arrest and cell death when treated the novel glycolysis inhibitor 3-BrOP. Potentiated ATP depletion and pro-apoptotic effects were seen for 3-BrOP combinations with the cytochrome-c-reductase inhibitor antimycin A and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. These results reveal a potential role for glycolysis inhibition in acute leukemia subtypes and suggest potential combinations.
2. The combination of the novel glycolysis inhibitor 3-BrOP and rapamycin is effective against neuroblastoma
Alejandro G Levy, et al. Invest New Drugs. 2012 Feb;30(1):191-9. doi: 10.1007/s10637-010-9551-y. Epub 2010 Oct 5.
Children with high-risk and recurrent neuroblastoma have poor survival rates, and novel therapies are needed. Many cancer cells have been found to preferentially employ the glycolytic pathway for energy generation, even in the presence of oxygen. 3-BrOP is a novel inhibitor of glycolysis, and has demonstrated efficacy against a wide range of tumor types. To determine whether human neuroblastoma cells are susceptible to glycolysis inhibition, we evaluated the role of 3-BrOP in neuroblastoma model systems. Neuroblastoma tumor cell lines demonstrated high rates of lactate accumulation and low rates of oxygen consumption, suggesting a potential susceptibility to inhibitors of glycolysis. In all ten human tested neuroblastoma tumor cell lines, 3-BrOP induced cell death via apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. Furthermore, 3-BrOP-induced depletion of ATP levels correlated with decreased neuroblastoma cell viability. In a mouse neuroblastoma xenograft model, glycolysis inhibition with 3-BrOP demonstrated significantly reduced final tumor weight. In neuroblastoma tumor cells, treatment with 3-BrOP induced mTOR activation, and the combination of 3-BrOP and mTOR inhibition with rapamycin demonstrated synergistic efficacy. Based on these results, neuroblastoma tumor cells are sensitive to treatment with inhibitors of glycolysis, and the demonstrated synergy with rapamycin suggests that the combination of glycolysis and mTOR inhibitors represents a novel therapeutic approach for neuroblastoma that warrants further investigation.
3. Vanadium: Risks and possible benefits in the light of a comprehensive overview of its pharmacotoxicological mechanisms and multi-applications with a summary of further research trends
Agnieszka Ścibior, Łukasz Pietrzyk, Zbigniew Plewa, Andrzej Skiba J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2020 Sep;61:126508. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2020.126508. Epub 2020 Apr 12.
Background: Vanadium (V) is an element with a wide range of effects on the mammalian organism. The ability of this metal to form organometallic compounds has contributed to the increase in the number of studies on the multidirectional biological activity of its various organic complexes in view of their application in medicine. Objective: This review aims at summarizing the current state of knowledge of the pharmacological potential of V and the mechanisms underlying its anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-parasitic, anti-fungal, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hypercholesterolemic, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective activity as well as the mechanisms of appetite regulation related to the possibility of using this element in the treatment of obesity. The toxicological potential of V and the mechanisms of its toxic action, which have not been sufficiently recognized yet, as well as key information about the essentiality of this metal, its physiological role, and metabolism with certain aspects on the timeline is collected as well. The report also aims to review the use of V in the implantology and industrial sectors emphasizing the human health hazard as well as collect data on the directions of further research on V and its interactions with Mg along with their character. Results and conclusions: Multidirectional studies on V have shown that further analyses are still required for this element to be used as a metallodrug in the fight against certain life-threatening diseases. Studies on interactions of V with Mg, which showed that both elements are able to modulate the response in an interactive manner are needed as well, as the results of such investigations may help not only in recognizing new markers of V toxicity and clarify the underlying interactive mechanism between them, thus improving the medical application of the metals against modern-age diseases, but also they may help in development of principles of effective protection of humans against environmental/occupational V exposure.