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D-Amino Acids
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
(2R)-2-amino-2-cyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-ylacetic acid
(R)-α-Amino-1,4-cyclohexadiene-1-acetic acid
White to off-white crystalline powder
1.226 g/cm3
Melting Point
Boiling Point
279.4 °C at 760 mmHg
Store at 2-8 °C
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1. Activation of NMDA receptors reduces metabotropic glutamate receptor-induced long-term depression in the nucleus accumbens via a CaMKII-dependent mechanism
Chiung-Chun Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu Neuropharmacology. 2012 Dec;63(8):1298-307. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.08.008. Epub 2012 Aug 28.
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and exerts its actions through two distinct types of receptors, ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). Although functional interplay between ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) and mGluR has been convincingly demonstrated in native and recombinant systems, the mechanism by which NMDAR activation leads to modulation of mGluR function has yet to be elucidated. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc) slices, we found that tetanic stimulation (TS) of excitatory afferents with a naturally occurring frequency (10 min at 13 Hz) reliably induces a mGluR1/5-dependent long-term depression (mGluR1/5-LTD) of excitatory synaptic transmission. Blockade of NMDAR during but not after TS showed enhanced mGluR1/5-LTD induction, which is associated with its antagonism of TS-induced calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activation. The ability of NMDAR antagonists to promote mGluR1/5-LTD induction was mimicked by a selective CaMKII inhibitor KN-62. However, the induction of mGluR1/5-LTD by bath-applied agonist (S)-3,5-dihydrophenylglycine was not affected by NMDAR blockade. We also observed that NMDAR or CaMKII blockade during TS significantly blunted TS-induced increased serine/threonine phosphorylation of the scaffold protein Homer1b/c and resulted in an increased interaction of mGluR5 with the Homer1b/c. These results indicate that synaptically released glutamate during TS of excitatory afferents can activate both NMDAR and mGluR1/5 in NAc neurons concomitantly and that activation of NMDAR may stimulate CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of Homer1b/c and impair the interaction between mGluR5 and Homer1b/c, thereby attenuating mGluR1/5-LTD induction. This study provides a novel molecular mechanism by which NMDAR could regulate mGluR5 function.
2. Different effects of NMDA/group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agents in delta- and mu-opioid receptor agonist-induced supraspinal antinociception
T Suzuki, T Aoki, O Ohnishi, H Nagase, M Narita Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 May 12;396(1):23-8. doi: 10.1016/s0014-2999(00)00183-7.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are involved in nociceptive transmission in the central nervous system. The present study was designed to study the effects of NMDA and group I mGlu receptor agents on delta- and mu-opioid receptor agonist-induced antinociception in the mouse brain. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) treatment with the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine and the group I mGlu receptor antagonist (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine ((S)-4CPG) significantly attenuated the antinociception induced by the delta-opioid receptor agonists [D-Pen(2), Pen(5)]enkephalin (DPDPE), (-)-TAN 67 and [D-Ala(2)]deltorphin II. On the contrary, i.c.v. administration of dizocilpine and (S)-4CPG slightly but significantly enhanced the antinociception induced by the mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO). Under these conditions, i.c.v. administration of NMDA and the group I mGlu receptor agonist 3,5-dihydrophenylglycine (DHPG) significantly enhanced the antinociception induced by delta-opioid receptor agonists, whereas both reduced DAMGO-induced antinociception. These findings suggest that the supraspinal antinociceptive actions of mu- and delta-opioid receptor agonists appear to be modulated differently by NMDA and group I mGlu receptors in the mouse.
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