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D-Pyr-OH is a chiral resolution reagent to separate racemic compounds into different mirror isomers and is an important tool for the production of optically active drugs.

Cyclic Amino Acids
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
D-Pyroglutamic acid; D-5-Oxo-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid; D Pyr OH
White crystalline powder
≥ 99% (Assay)
1.38 g/cm3
Melting Point
157-163 °C
Boiling Point
Store at 2-8 °C
Soluble in water.
Serves as a building block in the synthesis of diphthamide.
Canonical SMILES
1. Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths
William B Grant, Henry Lahore, Sharon L McDonnell, Carole A Baggerly, Christine B French, Jennifer L Aliano, Harjit P Bhattoa Nutrients. 2020 Apr 2;12(4):988. doi: 10.3390/nu12040988.
The world is in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health measures that can reduce the risk of infection and death in addition to quarantines are desperately needed. This article reviews the roles of vitamin D in reducing the risk of respiratory tract infections, knowledge about the epidemiology of influenza and COVID-19, and how vitamin D supplementation might be a useful measure to reduce risk. Through several mechanisms, vitamin D can reduce risk of infections. Those mechanisms include inducing cathelicidins and defensins that can lower viral replication rates and reducing concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines that produce the inflammation that injures the lining of the lungs, leading to pneumonia, as well as increasing concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Several observational studies and clinical trials reported that vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of influenza, whereas others did not. Evidence supporting the role of vitamin D in reducing risk of COVID-19 includes that the outbreak occurred in winter, a time when 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are lowest; that the number of cases in the Southern Hemisphere near the end of summer are low; that vitamin D deficiency has been found to contribute to acute respiratory distress syndrome; and that case-fatality rates increase with age and with chronic disease comorbidity, both of which are associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration. To reduce the risk of infection, it is recommended that people at risk of influenza and/or COVID-19 consider taking 10,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 for a few weeks to rapidly raise 25(OH)D concentrations, followed by 5000 IU/d. The goal should be to raise 25(OH)D concentrations above 40-60 ng/mL (100-150 nmol/L). For treatment of people who become infected with COVID-19, higher vitamin D3 doses might be useful. Randomized controlled trials and large population studies should be conducted to evaluate these recommendations.
2. Vitamin D, Autoimmune Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Stephanie R Harrison, Danyang Li, Louisa E Jeffery, Karim Raza, Martin Hewison Calcif Tissue Int. 2020 Jan;106(1):58-75. doi: 10.1007/s00223-019-00577-2. Epub 2019 Jul 8.
Vitamin D has been reported to influence physiological systems that extend far beyond its established functions in calcium and bone homeostasis. Prominent amongst these are the potent immunomodulatory effects of the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3). The nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) for 1,25-(OH)2D3 is expressed by many cells within the immune system and resulting effects include modulation of T cell phenotype to suppress pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 CD4+ T cells and promote tolerogenic regulatory T cells. In addition, antigen-presenting cells have been shown to express the enzyme 1α-hydroxylase that converts precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3) to 1,25-(OH)2D3, so that immune microenvironments are able to both activate and respond to vitamin D. As a consequence of this local, intracrine, system, immune responses may vary according to the availability of 25-OHD3, and vitamin D deficiency has been linked to various autoimmune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this review is to explore the immune activities of vitamin D that impact autoimmune disease, with specific reference to RA. As well as outlining the mechanisms linking vitamin D with autoimmune disease, the review will also describe the different studies that have linked vitamin D status to RA, and the current supplementation studies that have explored the potential benefits of vitamin D for prevention or treatment of RA. The overall aim of the review is to provide a fresh perspective on the potential role of vitamin D in RA pathogenesis and treatment.
3. Vitamin D Signaling in Psoriasis: Pathogenesis and Therapy
Anna A Brożyna, Radomir M Slominski, Bogusław Nedoszytko, Michal A Zmijewski, Andrzej T Slominski Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Aug 2;23(15):8575. doi: 10.3390/ijms23158575.
Psoriasis is a systemic, chronic, immune-mediated disease that affects approximately 2-3% of the world's population. The etiology and pathophysiology of psoriasis are still unknown, but the activation of the adaptive immune system with the main role of T-cells is key in psoriasis pathogenesis. The modulation of the local neuroendocrine system with the downregulation of pro-inflammatory and the upregulation of anti-inflammatory messengers represent a promising adjuvant treatment in psoriasis therapies. Vitamin D receptors and vitamin D-mediated signaling pathways function in the skin and are essential in maintaining the skin homeostasis. The active forms of vitamin D act as powerful immunomodulators of clinical response in psoriatic patients and represent the effective and safe adjuvant treatments for psoriasis, even when high doses of vitamin D are administered. The phototherapy of psoriasis, especially UVB-based, changes the serum level of 25(OH)D, but the correlation of 25(OH)D changes and psoriasis improvement need more clinical trials, since contradictory data have been published. Vitamin D derivatives can improve the efficacy of psoriasis phototherapy without inducing adverse side effects. The anti-psoriatic treatment could include non-calcemic CYP11A1-derived vitamin D hydroxyderivatives that would act on the VDR or as inverse agonists on RORs or activate alternative nuclear receptors including AhR and LXRs. In conclusion, vitamin D signaling can play an important role in the natural history of psoriasis. Selective targeting of proper nuclear receptors could represent potential treatment options in psoriasis.

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