1. Cloning and characterization of d-threonine aldolase from the green alga chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
Minoru Tanigawa, Katsushi Nishimura, Hiroyuki Ashida, Yuki Hirato, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Mayumi Tokuhisa. Phytochemistry. 2017 Mar; 135: 18-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2016.12.012. PMID: 28038776.
d-Threonine aldolase (DTA) catalyzes the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent interconversion of d-threonine and glycine plus acetaldehyde. The enzyme is a powerful tool for the stereospecific synthesis of various β-hydroxy amino acids in synthetic organic chemistry. In this study, DTA from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was discovered and characterized, representing the first report to describe the existence of eukaryotic DTA. DTA was overexpressed in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells; the specific activity of the enzyme in the cell-free extract was 0.8 U/mg. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sepharose, and Mono Q column chromatographies (purified enzyme 7.0 U/mg). For the cleavage reaction, the optimal temperature and pH were 70 °C and pH 8.4, respectively. The enzyme demonstrated 90% of residual activity at 50 °C for 1 h. The enzyme catalyzed the synthesis of d- and d-allo threonine from a mixture of glycine and acetaldehyde (the diastereomer excess of d-threonine was 18%). DTA was activated by several divalent metal ions, including manganese, and was inhibited by PLP enzyme inhibitors and metalloenzyme inhibitors.
2. High-throughput screening method for directed evolution and characterization of aldol activity of d-threonine aldolase.
Jinjun Dong, Lei Gong, Ye Ni, Ruizhi Han, Guochao Xu, Xudong Cao. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2021 Feb; 193(2): 417-429. DOI: 10.1007/s12010-020-03447-y. PMID: 33015743.
A rapid and reliable method for the determination of aldol condensation activity of threonine aldolases (TAs) toward aldehydes and glycine was developed. This 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) method has high sensitivity and low background disturbance and can be spectrophotometrically measured for high-throughput screening and characterization of TAs. For 4-methylsulfonyl benzaldehyde (MSB), the maximum absorbance peak was observed at around 485 nm. Site-directed saturation mutagenesis libraries of D-threonine aldolase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans CGMCC 1.4257 (AxDTA) was constructed and screened with this DNPH method for increased aldol activity toward MSB. Two beneficial variants AxDTAD321Cand AxDTAN101Gwere identified. Substrate specificity of AxDTA and variants toward nineteen aldehydes with different substituents was facilely characterized employing this DNPH method. Furthermore, AxDTA variants displayed enhanced catalytic performance and selectivity in aldol reaction. Consequently, our study provides a rapid screening and characterization method for TAs with potential applications in preparation of chiral β-hydroxy-α-amino acids.
3. Crystallization and x-ray analysis of d-threonine aldolase from chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
Katsushi Nishimura, Minoru Tanigawa, Yuki Hirato, Masaru Goto, Mayumi Tokuhisa. Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun. 2017 Feb 1; 73(Pt 2): 86-89. DOI: 10.1107/S2053230X1602063X. PMID: 28177318.
D-Threonine aldolase from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrDTA) catalyzes the interconversion of several β-hydroxy-D-amino acids (e.g. D-threonine) and glycine plus the corresponding aldehydes. Recombinant CrDTA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity; it was subsequently crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 K. Data were collected and processed at 1.85 Å resolution. Analysis of the diffraction pattern showed that the crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 64.79, b = 74.10, c = 89.94 Å, α = 77.07, β = 69.34, γ = 71.93°. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules of CrDTA. The Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 2.12 Å3Da-1and the solvent content was 41.9%.