1. Nanoparticles Based on Quaternary Ammonium Chitosan-methyl-β-cyclodextrin Conjugate for the Neuropeptide Dalargin Delivery to the Central Nervous System: An In Vitro Study
Anna Maria Piras, Chiara Migone, Martina Giannasi, Letizia Mattii, Ylenia Zambito, Andrea Cesari, Stefania Moscato Pharmaceutics . 2020 Dec 22;13(1):5. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13010005.
Peptide oral administration is a hard goal to reach, especially if the brain is the target site. The purpose of the present study was to set up a vehicle apt to promote oral absorption of the neuropeptide dalargin (DAL), allowing it to cross the intestinal mucosal barrier, resist enzymatic degradation, and transport drugs to the brain after crossing the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, a chitosan quaternary ammonium derivative was synthesized and conjugated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin to prepare DAL-medicated nanoparticles (DAL-NP). DAL-NP particle size was 227.7 nm, zeta potential +8.60 mV, encapsulation efficiency 89%. DAL-NP protected DAL from degradation by chymotrypsin or pancreatin and tripled DAL degradation time compared to non-encapsulated DAL. Use of DAL-NP was safe for either Caco-2 or bEnd.3 cells, with the latter selected as a blood-brain barrier model. DAL-NP could also cross either the Caco-2 or bEnd.3 monolayer by the transepithelial route. The results suggest a potential DAL-NP ability to transport to the brain a DAL dose fraction administered orally, although in vivo experiments will be needed to confirm the present data obtained in vitro.
2. Effect of dalargin on DNA synthesis in the gastric mucosa of albino rats
O A Lebedko, E N Sazonova, E U Zivotova, S S Timoshin, M U Fleishman Bull Exp Biol Med . 2007 Sep;144(3):314-6. doi: 10.1007/s10517-007-0320-7.
3H-thymidine autoradiography and chemiluminescence study demonstrated pronounced effect of dalargin on the state of the gastric mucosa in albino rats. Dalargin stimulated DNA synthesis in the epithelium of the gastric mucosa and increased buffer capacity of its antiradical and antioxidant systems. Dalargin analogue not containing arginine ([D-Ala2]-leu-enkephalin) had little effect on these parameters. NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME abolished the effects of dalargin on DNA synthesis in the gastric mucosa. Our results suggest that the NO system plays an important role in the effect of dalargin on the gastric mucosa.
3. [Effect of dalargin on the processes of memory and learning in the rat]
M I Zaĭchenko, E I Kuliev, T N Riga, N G Mikhaĭlova, V M Getsova Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova . 1986 May-Jun;36(3):482-9.
In experiments on rats, the influence was studied of dalargin on the elaboration and preservation of various homogeneous and heterogeneous conditioned reflexes (CRs) elaborated in single and multiple pairings. The effect of dalargin on the processes of learning and memory was compared with the action of the peptide on the activity of hypothalamic neurones. Administration of dalargin delayed the elaboration of maze defensive CRs and practically did not affect the elaboration of two-way avoidance. The preservation of CR also deteriorated under the influence of dalargin. Administration of dalargin 10 min before the CRs testing did not prevent their reproduction. When using CRs elaborated in a single pairing, dalargin disturbed the preservation of the drinking CR and improved that of passive avoidance CR. Dalargin in this dose affected the emotional state of animals in the open field and did not significantly affect their motor activity. Dalargin suppressed impulse activity in 17 out of 22 tested neurones of the lateral hypothalamus, with maximum effect in 20-50 min after its administration. The obtained data show that the character of dalargin action on the elaboration of CR and mainly on its consolidation, depends on the character of the elaborated CR and is probably due to great extent to the effect of the peptide on the brain emotional mechanisms.