1. Method development for the determination of D- and L-isomers of leucine in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and its application to animal plasma samples
Hiroshi Sugimoto, Masaaki Kakehi, Fumihiro Jinno Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015 Oct;407(26):7889-98. doi: 10.1007/s00216-015-8999-1. Epub 2015 Sep 7.
We developed a highly sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with an electrospray ionization for the determination of D- and L-isomers of leucine in human plasma. Phosphate-buffered saline was used as the surrogate matrix for preparation of calibration curves and quality control samples. The extraction of D- and L-leucine in plasma samples (100 μL) was performed using cationic exchange solid-phase extraction. The enantiomer separation of D- and L-leucine was successfully achieved without derivatization using a CHIRALPAK ZWIX(-) with an isocratic mobile phase comprised of methanol/acetonitrile/1 mol/L ammonium formate/formic acid (500:500:25:2, v/v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. In addition, the discrimination of DL-leucine from structural isomers DL-isoleucine and DL-allo-isoleucine was performed using the unique precursor and product ion pair transition of DL-leucine (m/z 132.1 > 43.0) and DL-leucine-d 7 (m/z 139.2 > 93.0) in positive electrospray ionization mode. The standard curves were linear throughout the calibration range from 0.001 to 1 μg/mL for D-leucine and from 1 to 1000 μg/mL for L-leucine, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy. The stability of D- and L-leucine in human plasma and solvents was confirmed. The endogenous level of D- and L-leucine in human plasma was 0.00197~0.00591 and 9.63~24.7 μg/mL, respectively. This method was also successfully applied to investigate the species difference in the ratios of D-leucine to total leucine from individual plasma concentrations in humans and various animals. The plasma D-leucine concentrations or their ratio to total leucine in rodents was much higher than that in humans.
2. Structural relationships in crystals accommodating different stereoisomers of 2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid
B Dalhus, C H Gorbitz Acta Crystallogr B. 2000 Aug;56(Pt 4):720-7. doi: 10.1107/s0108768100002810.
A reinvestigation of the crystal structure of the 1:1 mixture of the two racemates DL-isoleucine and DL-allo-isoleucine, with a detailed analysis of interatomic distances between alternative side-chain positions, reveals a systematic distribution of the four stereoisomers in this crystal. Two different molecular chains exist in the crystal and each such chain accommodates a single diastereomeric pair only (L-isoleucine:D-allo-isoleucine or D-isoleucine:L-allo-isoleucine). The crystal is built up by a stacking of such chains in two dimensions and three different packing modes for the two types of chains are discussed. Crystallization experiments of the two individual racemates in the 1:1 mixture of DL-isoleucine:DL-allo-isoleucine have been undertaken. The structure of the racemate DL-isoleucine is presented. The molecular arrangements in this racemate and the 1:1 DL-isoleucine:DL-allo-isoleucine mixture are closely related. Furthermore, the spontaneous resolution of enantiomers upon crystallization of the other racemate, DL-allo-isoleucine, is rationalized on the basis of the aforementioned analysis of interatomic distances in the 1:1 DL-isoleucine:DL-allo-isoleucine complex. Structural data for a new L-isoleucine: D-allo-isoleucine complex are also given.