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DL-Amino Acids
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
DL-His-OH; 2-amino-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid
Light pink powder
≥ 99% (HPLC)
1.3092 g/cm3(rough estimate)
Melting Point
273°C (dec)
Boiling Point
278.95°C (rough estimate)
Store at RT
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1.Influence of stereochemistry and redox potentials on the single- and double-strand DNA cleavage efficiency of Cu(II) and Ni(II) Lys-Gly-His-derived ATCUN metallopeptides.
Jin Y1, Lewis MA, Gokhale NH, Long EC, Cowan JA. J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Jul 4;129(26):8353-61. Epub 2007 Jun 7.
The DNA cleavage chemistry of a series of metallopeptides based on the amino-terminal Cu and Ni (ATCUN) binding motif of proteins has been studied. Specifically, the impact of the positioning of charged Lys side chains and their stereochemistry on metal reduction potentials and DNA cleavage reactivity have been quantitatively evaluated. Both Cu and Ni metallopeptides show a general increase in reactivity toward DNA with an increasing number of Lys residues, while a corresponding decrease in complex reduction potential reflects the enhanced sigma-donor character of the Lys side chain relative to that of Gly. Placement of Lys at the first position in the tripeptide ligand sequence resulted in a greater increase in DNA cleavage reactivity, relative to placement at the second position, while a switch from an l-Lys to a d-Lys typically resulted in enhanced reactivity, as well as perturbations of reduction potential. In the case of Cu peptides, reactivity was enhanced with both increasing positive charge density on the peptide and stabilization of the Cu3+ state.
2.Novel biological effects of alloferon and its selected analogues: structure-activity study.
Kuczer M1, Czarniewska E2, Rosiński G2. Regul Pept. 2013 May 10;183:17-22. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2013.03.010. Epub 2013 Mar 13.
The subject of this paper is a search for new biological properties of alloferon (H-His-Gly-Val-Ser-Gly-His-Gly-Gln-His-Gly-Val-His-Gly-OH) and a series of its analogues. The studies on structure/activity relationship in alloferon, the synthesis of a series of 28 analogues were performed. The analogues were modified at position 1 or 6, and other were oligopeptides with a shortened peptide sequence. Biological effects of the peptides were evaluated by the pro-apoptotic action in vivo on haemocytes of Tenebrio molitor and in the cardiotropic test in vitro on the heart of T. molitor and Zophobas atratus. In the in vivo bioassays, new biological activities of alloferon and its analogues were discovered. In haemocytotoxic bioassay, alloferon strongly induces T. molitor haemocytes to undergo apoptosis at a dose of 10 nM. Moreover, [Phe(p-NH2)(1)]-, [Tyr(6)]- and [1-10]-alloferon exhibit a two-fold increase of caspases activation in comparison with the alloferon.
3.Copper.Lys-Gly-His-Lys mediated cleavage of tRNA(Phe): studies of reaction mechanism and cleavage specificity.
Bradford S1, Kawarasaki Y, Cowan JA. J Inorg Biochem. 2009 Jun;103(6):871-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2009.03.003. Epub 2009 Mar 19.
The reactivity of [Cu2+.Lys-Gly-His-Lys-NH2]2+ and [Cu2+.Lys-Gly-His-Lys]+ toward tRNA(Phe) has been evaluated. The amidated and carboxylate forms of the copper peptides display complex binding behavior with strong and weak sites evident (K(D1)(app) approximately 71 microM, K(D2)(app) approximately 211 microM for the amide form; and K(D1)(app) approximately 34 microM, K(D2)(app) approximately 240 microM for the carboxylate form), while Cu2+(aq) yielded K(D1)(app) approximately 81 microM and K(D2)(app) approximately 136 microM. The time-dependence of the reaction of [Cu2+.Lys-Gly-His-Lys]+ and [Cu2+.Lys-Gly-His-Lys-NH2]2+ with tRNA(Phe) yielded k(obs) approximately 0.075 h(-1) for both complexes. HPLC analysis of the reaction products demonstrated guanine as the sole base product. Mass spectrometric data shows a limited number of cleavage fragments with product peak masses consistent with chemistry occurring at a discrete site defined by the structurally contiguous D and TPsiC loops, and in a domain where high affinity magnesium centers have previously been observed to promote hydrolysis of the tRNA(Phe) backbone.
4.An unusual conformation of γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogues leads to a selective human melanocortin 1 receptor antagonist for targeting melanoma cells.
Cai M1, Stankova M, Muthu D, Mayorov A, Yang Z, Trivedi D, Cabello C, Hruby VJ. Biochemistry. 2013 Jan 29;52(4):752-64. doi: 10.1021/bi300723f. Epub 2013 Jan 15.
γ-MSH (γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, H-Tyr-Val-Met-Gly-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Asp-Arg-Phe-Gly-OH), with its exquisite specificity and potency, has recently created much excitement as a drug lead. However, this peptide is like most peptides susceptible to proteolysis in vivo, which potentially decreases its beneficial activities. In our continued effort to design a proteolytically stable ligand with specific receptor binding, we have engineered peptides by cyclizing γ-MSH using a thioether bridge. A number of novel cyclic truncated γ-MSH analogues were designed and synthesized, in which a thioether bridge was incorporated between a cysteine side chain and an N-terminal bromoacyl group. One of these peptides, cyclo-[(CH(2))(3)CO-Gly(1)-His(2)-D-Phe(3)-Arg(4)-D-Trp(5)-Cys(S-)(6)]-Asp(7)-Arg(8)-Phe(9)-Gly(10)-NH(2), demonstrated potent antagonist activity and receptor selectivity for the human melanocortin 1 receptor (hMC1R) (IC(50) = 17 nM). This novel peptide is the most selective antagonist for the hMC1R to date.

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