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Serine is a non-essential amino acid and a natural ligand and allosteric activator of pyruvate kinase M2.

DL-Amino Acids
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
2-amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid
Serine; Serine, DL-; (±)-Serine; 2-Azaniumyl-3-hydroxypropanoate; DL-Ser; NSC 9960
Related CAS
56-45-1 (L-isomer)
White crystalline powder
1.415±0.06 g/cm3
Melting Point
246°C (dec.)
Boiling Point
394.8±32.0°C at 760 mmHg
Store at 2-8°C under inert atmosphere
Soluble in Water (Sparingly, Heated, Sonicated)
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1. [Development of unprotected syntheses in aqueous media]
Yuusaku Yokoyama Yakugaku Zasshi . 2013;133(2):249-68. doi: 10.1248/yakushi.12-00265.
Introduction of carbon side chain at C(3)-position of indole ring was accomplished by using Pd-catalyzed allylation and vinylation. The selective vinylation at C(3)-position of 4-bromoindole was applied to the synthesis of optically active 4-bromotryptophan derivatives, which was used as a starting material for the synthesis of several optically active ergot alkaloids, which were clavicipitic acids, chanoclavine-I, costacalvine, and 1,1-dimethylallyltryptophan (DMAT). The three-step synthesis of optically active clavicipitic acids were accomplished without using a protecting group starting from 4-bromoindole and dl-serine. Some new synthetic reactions using unprotected amino acids were developed. Those were the biomimetic synthesis of tryptophan, the bromination of free aromatic amino acids, and the Pd-catalyzed N-allylation of free amino acids with allylic alcohol in aqueous media. Unique reactivity of π-allyl palladium complex or η3-(benzyl)palladium complex in aqueous media was found through Pd-catalyzed reaction of anthranilic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, and indole with allylic alcohols or benzyl alcohols, respectively.
2. Crystal and molecular structure of DL-serine hydrochloride studied by X-ray diffraction, low-temperature Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and DFT(B3LYP) calculations
I Reva,M Ramos Silva,M Rozenberg,R Fausto,A M Matos Beja,S Jarmelo J Phys Chem B . 2008 Jul 10;112(27):8032-41. doi: 10.1021/jp7115609.
The structure of dl-serine.HCl was studied by three complementary techniques. Experimental Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of pure NH/OH polycrystalline dl-serine.HCl [HO-CH2-CH(NH3+)-COOH.Cl(-)] and the respective deuterated derivatives [ND/ODAlcohol/Acid (<10% and ca. 60% D)] were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) in the temperature range 300-10 K and interpreted. The assignments were confirmed by comparison with the vibrational spectra of crystalline dl- and l-serine zwitterions [HO-CH 2-CH(NH3+)-COO(-)]. Further insight into the structure of the title compound was provided by theoretical DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) calculations of the infrared spectra and energies of 13 different conformers. Potential energy distributions resulting from normal co-ordinate analysis were calculated for the most stable conformer ( I) in its hydrogenated and deuterated modification. Frequencies of several vibrational modes were used in the estimation of enthalpies of individual H-bonds present in the crystal, using empirical correlations between enthalpy and the frequency shift that occurs as a result of the establishment of the H-bonds. X-ray crystallography data for dl-serine.HCl were recorded for the first time and, together with the experimental vibrational spectra and the theoretical calculations, allowed a detailed characterization of its molecular structure.
H TRISTRAM,S NEALE J Bacteriol . 1963 Dec;86(6):1241-50. doi: 10.1128/jb.86.6.1241-1250.1963.
Neale, S. (Department of Botany, University College, London, England), and H. Tristram. Effect of O-methyl-dl-threonine and O-methyl-dl-serine on growth and protein synthesis in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 86:1241-1250. 1963.-Addition of either O-methyl-dl-threonine or O-methyl-dl-serine to exponentially growing cultures of Escherichia coli resulted in "linear" increases in optical density. The total cell count, however, remained constant, the increase in optical density being accompanied by a marked increase in cell length. In the presence of O-methyl-dl-serine, a phase of "linear" growth was followed by exponential growth, which was maintained during a second passage through analogue-containing medium but not after a subsequent passage through normal medium, suggesting phenotypic adaptation to the analogue. The differential rate of incorporation of amino acids into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material was unaffected by growth in the presence of either O-methyl-dl-threonine or O-methyl-dl-serine. Neither analogue was incorporated into E. coli protein. The effect of the analogues on the production of alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase was examined. The precise point and mode of action of the analogues have not been determined, but available evidence suggests that the growth-inhibitory effects of both substances are due to interference with the biosynthesis of threonine and methionine.
4. Evaluation of chiral separation efficiency of a novel OTPTHE derivatization reagent: Applications to liquid-chromatographic determination of DL-serine in human plasma
Mei-Na Jin,Yu Han,Chun-Yan Xu,Toufeng Jin,Jun Zhe Min,Qing Qian,Jun Nan Chirality . 2019 Dec;31(12):1043-1052. doi: 10.1002/chir.23133.
A novel chiral derivatization reagent, the N-[1-oxo-5-(triphenylphosphonium)pentyl]- (R)-1,3-thiazolidinyl-4-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester bromide salt (OTPTHE), was developed for the separation and selective detection of chiral DL-amino acids by RP-HPLC analysis. The OTPTHE reacted with DL-amino acids at 60°C maintained for 30 minutes in the presence of 100 mM borate buffer (pH 9.5). The separability of the diastereomeric derivatives was evaluated in terms of the resolution value (Rs) using 13 kinds of DL-amino acids, which were completely separated by reversed-phase chromatography using C18 column at 254 nm. The Rs of the DL-amino acids varied from 1.62 to 2.51. As for the application of the DL-amino acids, the determination of DL-Ser in the human plasma of healthy volunteers was performed based on our developed method. It was shown that linear calibrations were available with high coefficients of correlation (r2> 0.9997). The limit of detection (S/N = 3) of the DL-Ser enantiomers was 5.0 pmol; the relative standard deviations of the intraday and interday variations were below 4.56%; the accuracy ranged between 95.40%-110.06% and 95.45%-109.80%, respectively; the mean recoveries (%) of the DL-Ser spiked in the human plasma were 99.49%-103.74%. The amounts of DL-Ser in the human plasma of healthy volunteers were determined.
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