1.Amino acid/spermine conjugates: polyamine amides as potent spermidine uptake inhibitors.
Burns MR;Carlson CL;Vanderwerf SM;Ziemer JR;Weeks RS;Cai F;Webb HK;Graminski GF J Med Chem. 2001 Oct 25;44(22):3632-44.
In this paper we describe the synthesis and characterization of a series of simple spermine/amino acid conjugates, some of which potently inhibit the uptake of spermidine into MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The presence of an amide in the functionalized polyamine appeared to add to the affinity for the polyamine transporter. The extensive biological characterization of an especially potent analogue from this series, the Lys-Spm conjugate (31), showed this molecule will be an extremely useful tool for use in polyamine research. It was shown that the use of 31 in combination with DFMO led to a cytostatic growth inhibition of a variety of cancer cells, even when used in the presence of an extracellular source of transportable spermidine. It was furthermore shown that this combination effectively reduced the cellular levels of putrescine and spermidine while not affecting the levels of spermine. These facts together with the nontoxic nature of 31 make it a novel lead for further anticancer development.
2.Differential Mechanisms for the Involvement of Polyamines and Hypusinated eIF5A in Ebola Virus Gene Expression.
Olsen ME;Cressey TN;Mühlberger E;Connor JH J Virol. 2018 Jul 25. pii: JVI.01260-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01260-18. [Epub ahead of print]
Polyamines and hypusinated eIF5A have been implicated in the replication of diverse viruses, however, defining their roles in supporting virus replication is still under investigation. We have previously reported that Ebola virus (EBOV) requires polyamines and hypusinated eIF5A for replication. Using a replication deficient minigenome construct, we show that gene expression, in the absence of genome replication, requires hypusinated eIF5A. Additional experiments demonstrated the block in gene expression upon hypusine depletion was post-transcriptional, as minigenome reporter mRNA transcribed by the EBOV polymerase accumulated normally in the presence of drug treatment where protein did not. When this mRNA was isolated from cells with low levels of hypusinated eIF5A and transfected into cells with normal eIF5A function, minigenome reporter protein accumulation was normal, demonstrating that the mRNA produced was functional but required hypusinated eIF5A function for translation. Our results support a mechanism in which hypusinated eIF5A is required for the translation of, but not synthesis of, EBOV transcripts. In contrast, depletion of polyamines with DFMO resulted in a strong block in the accumulation of EBOV polymerase-produced mRNA, indicating a distinct mechanism of polyamine suppression of EBOV gene expression.
3.Chemoprevention of bladder cancer.
Kamat AM;Lamm DL Urol Clin North Am. 2002 Feb;29(1):157-68.
The data presented herein, although highly supportive for a protective role of various nutrients against bladder cancer, are far from definitive. Many authorities question the validity of current recommendations for nutritional chemoprevention against bladder cancer. The reason for the wide variations reported in epidemiologic studies lies in the nature of observational studies. Dietary studies are limited in their conclusions because the protection afforded by the consumption of a particular nutrient may be multifactorial, with different components of the food exerting potential chemopreventive effects. Furthermore, measuring levels of nutrients in the food intake of populations is confounded by factors that might affect these levels and also the incidence of cancer. For example, vitamin A can come from animal or vegetarian sources. Because animal fat has been identified as a potential carcinogen in man, depending on the source of the vitamin, varying levels of protection might be deduced. In addition, chemoprevention studies using dietary supplements are expected to have mild effects, and large studies would be required to confirm statistical significance. Even with agents such as intravesical chemotherapy, only half the studies achieve statistical significance .