Exenatide acetate is a potent peptide agonist of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor with Ki value of 136 pM. It is a 39 amino acid peptide, which increases intracellular cAMP in pancreatic acinar cells and has no effect on VIP receptors. It was first isolated from the venom of H. horridum and consequently synthesized. It stimulates proliferation of HCAECs through PKA-PI3K/Akt-eNOS activation pathways via a GLP-1 receptor-dependent mechanism. It also stimulates glucose-induced insulin secretion in isolated rat islets and proinsulin expression in mouse insulinoma βTC-1 cells. It protects hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced apoptosis, suggesting utility in neurodegenerative diseases. It also has anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects and induces satiety. It is an incretin mimetic approved for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. It also has neurotrophic/protective activity in cellular and animal models of stroke, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.