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Fluorinated amino acids
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
≥ 95%
1.453 g/cm3
Boiling Point
755.2 °C at 760 mmHg
Store at -20 °C
1. Thermodynamic functions and intra-particle mass transfer kinetics of structural analogues of a template on molecularly imprinted polymers in liquid chromatography
Hyunjung Kim, Georges Guiochon J Chromatogr A. 2005 Dec 2;1097(1-2):84-97. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2005.08.020. Epub 2005 Aug 25.
The parameters of the thermodynamics and mass transfer kinetics of the structural analogues (L-enantiomers) of the template were measured on an Fmoc-L-tryptophan (Fmoc-L-Trp) imprinted polymer, at different temperatures. The equilibrium isotherm data and the overloaded band profiles of these compounds were measured at temperatures of 298, 313, 323, and 333 K. The isotherm data were modeled. The thermodynamic functions of the different adsorption sites were derived from the isotherm parameters, using van't Hoff plots. The mass transfer parameters were derived by comparing the experimental peak profiles and profiles calculated using the lumped pore diffusion (POR) model for chromatography. These data show that (1) the strength between the substrate molecules and the MIP increases with increasing number of functional groups on the substrates; (2) enthalpy is the driving force for the affinity of the substrates for the MIP; (3) surface diffusion is the dominant mass transfer mechanism of the substrates through the porous MIP. For those substrate molecules that have the same stereochemistry as the template, the energetic surface heterogeneity needs to be incorporated into the surface diffusion coefficients. Heterogeneous surface diffusivities decrease with increasing affinity of the substrates for the MIP.
2. Thermodynamic studies on solvent effects in molecularly imprinted polymers. 2. Concentration of the organic modifier
Hyunjung Kim, Georges Guiochon Anal Chem. 2005 Mar 15;77(6):1718-26. doi: 10.1021/ac040164o.
The effects of the organic modifier concentration on the isotherm parameters of the two enantiomers of Fmoc-tryptophan (Fmoc-L,D-Trp) on an Fmoc-L-Trp-imprinted polymer were investigated over a wide concentration range (0.005-100 mM), using frontal analysis. The modifier was acetic acid; concentrations of 0.2, 0.9, 1.7, and 3.7 M in an acetonitrile-based mobile phase were studied. At each concentration, adsorption isotherm data were acquired for each enantiomer. From these data, the isotherm parameters of each compound were derived from nonlinear isotherm fitting and the affinity energy distributions were calculated independently. We found that three types of sites coexist for Fmoc-L-Trp but only two types of sites for Fmoc-D-Trp, except at the lowest acetic acid concentration (0.2 M), at which three types of sites coexist. Increasing the acetic acid concentration decreases the selectivity and the overall affinity of both enantiomers. The overall affinity of Fmoc-L-Trp is dominated by the contribution of the low-density highest energy sites while that of Fmoc-D-Trp is dominated by the most abundant, low-energy sites. For the low-energy sites, increasing the acetic acid concentration affects the association constant of the enantiomers more than the number of corresponding sites. In contrast, for the highest energy sites (sites that exist only for Fmoc-L-Trp), increasing the concentration of acetic acid affects significantly the number of sites but hardly changes the association constant.
3. Thermodynamic analysis of the heterogenous binding sites of molecularly imprinted polymers
Hyunjung Kim, Krzysztof Kaczmarski, Georges Guiochon J Chromatogr A. 2006 Jan 6;1101(1-2):136-52. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2005.09.092. Epub 2005 Nov 2.
The thermodynamic interactions of two polymers, one Fmoc-L-Trp-imprinted (MIP), the other one an unimprinted reference (NIP), with the two Fmoc-tryptophan enantiomers were studied by frontal analysis, which allows accurate measurements of the adsorption isotherms. These isotherms were acquired at temperatures of 40, 50, 60, and 70 degrees C, for sample concentrations ranging between 0.005 and 40 mM. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile with one percent acetic acid as an organic modifier. Within the measured concentration ranges, the tri-Langmuir isotherm model accounts best for the isotherm data of both enantiomers on the MIP, the bi-Langmuir model for the isotherm data of Fmoc-L-Trp on the NIP. These isotherm models were selected using three independent processes: statistical tests on the results from regression of the isotherm data to different isotherm models; calculation of the affinity energy distribution from the raw isotherm data; comparison of the experimental and the calculated band profiles. The isotherm parameters obtained from these best selected isotherm models showed that the enantiomeric selectivity does not change significantly with temperature, while the affinity of the substrates for both the MIP and the NIP decrease considerably with increasing temperatures. These temperature effects on the binding performance of the MIP were clarified by considering the thermodynamic functions (i.e., the standard molar Gibbs free energy, the standard molar entropy of adsorption, and the standard molar enthalpy of adsorption) for each identified type of adsorption sites, derived from the Van't Hoff equation. This showed that the entropy of transfer of Fmoc-L-Trp from the mobile to the MIP stationary phase is the dominant driving force for the selective adsorption of Fmoc-L-Trp onto the enantioselective binding sites. This entropy does not change significantly with increasing temperatures from 40 to 70 degrees C.

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