1.Synthesis and function of an O-phosphorylated peptide corresponding to the cell adhesion sequence of bone sialoprotein (BSP).
Larsson E1, Lüning B, Heinegård D. Acta Chem Scand. 1993 Jun;47(6):565-9.
Bone sialoprotein contains a cell-binding RGD sequence followed by a threonine residue. Since the protein is extensively phosphorylated, this threonine may also be modified. To study whether such a phosphorylation may alter cell-binding properties, the hexapeptide Pro-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr(O-phosphoryl)-Tyr has been synthesized by the Fmoc technique using benzyl protective groups for Tyr and phosphate, tert-butyl ester for Asp and Pmc for Arg. Removal of Fmoc groups was effected by treatment with 20% morpholine in DMF. The phospho-peptide inhibited binding of R1 cells to BSP-coated surfaces 10 times less efficiently compared with the non-phosphorylated peptide, as did, surprisingly, also the fibronectin-derived peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro.
2.Enantioselective synthesis of (2R, 3S)- and (2S, 3R)-4,4,4-trifluoro-N-Fmoc-O-tert-butyl-threonine and their racemization-free incorporation into oligopeptides via solid-phase synthesis.
Xiao N1, Jiang ZX, Yu YB. Biopolymers. 2007;88(6):781-96.
An efficient method for the enantioselective synthesis of (2R, 3S)- and (2S, 3R)-4,4,4-trifluoro-N-Fmoc-O-tert-butyl-threonine on multigram scales was developed. Absolute configurations of the two stereoisomers were ascertained by X-ray crystallography. Racemization-free coupling conditions for the incorporation of tfT into oligopeptides were then explored. For solution-phase synthesis, tfT racemization was not an issue under conventional coupling conditions. For solid-phase synthesis, the following conditions were identified to achieve racemization-free synthesis: if tfT (3.0 equiv) was not the first amino acid to be linked to the resin (1.0 equiv), the condition is 2.7 equiv DIC/3.0 equiv HOBt as the coupling reagent at 0 degrees C for 20 h; if tfT (3.0 equiv) was the first amino acid to be linked to the resin (1.0 equiv), then 1.0 equiv of CuCl(2) needs to be added to the coupling reagent.
3.Synthesis and NMR spectroscopy of peptides containing either phosphorylated or phosphonylated cis- or trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline.
Hoffmann R1, Hoffmann T, Tholey A, Schulte AC, Kalbitzer HR. J Pept Res. 1997 Feb;49(2):163-73.
Many proteins are regulated by reversible O-glycosylation and O-phosphorylation. Whereas O-glycosylation of hydroxy-L-proline is common and well investigated, phosphorylation has not been proved so far in vivo, but this post-translational modification is entirely possible. As a first step to identify this phosphoamino acid, we describe both the syntheses of peptides phosphorylated at 4-hydroxy-L-proline and the 1H and 31P NMR parameters of these phosphopeptides. The model peptides were synthesized on solid-phase using Fmoc-strategy. Both natural isomers of 4-hydroxy-L-proline (containing the hydroxyl group in either the cis or trans position) were introduced without side-chain protection. All peptides were globally phosphorylated with O,O'-tert-butyl-N,N-diethylphosphoramidite on the solid phase and cleaved with trifluoroacetic acid. Additionally, we synthesized two classes of phosphonopeptides that mimic phosphopeptides, namely H- and methylphosphonopeptides.
4.A concise methodology for the stereoselective synthesis of O-glycosylated amino acid building blocks: complete 1H NMR assignments and their application in solid-phase glycopeptide synthesis.
Satyanarayana J1, Gururaja TL, Naganagowda GA, Ramasubbu N, Levine MJ. J Pept Res. 1998 Sep;52(3):165-79.
A facile strategy for the stereoselective synthesis of suitably protected O-glycosylated amino acid building blocks, namely, Nalpha-Fmoc-Ser-[Ac4-beta-D-Gal-(1-3)-Ac2-alpha or beta-D-GalN3]-OPfp and Nalpha-Fmoc-Thr-[Ac4-beta-D-Gal-(1-3)-Ac2-alpha or beta-D-GalN3]-OPfp is described. What is new and novel in this report is that Koenigs-Knorr type glycosylation of an aglycon serine/threonine derivative (i.e. Nalpha-Fmoc-Ser-OPfp or Nalpha-Fmoc-Thr-OPfp) with protected beta-D-Gal(1-3)-D-GalN3 synthon mediated by silver salts resulted in only alpha- and/or beta-isomers in excellent yields under two different reaction conditions. The subtle differences in stereoselectivity were demonstrated clearly when glycosylation was carried out using only AgClO4 at -40 degrees C which afforded a-isomer in a quantitative yield (alpha:beta = 5:1). On the other hand, the beta-isomer was formed exclusively when the reaction was performed in the presence of Ag2CO3/AgClO4 at room temperature.