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G3335 is a cell-permeable dipeptide that selectively and reversibly antagonizes PPARγ with a Kd value of 8.34 µM. G3335 reversiblyand competitively blocks activation of PPARγ by rosiglitazone.

Peptide Inhibitors
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoyl]amino]pentanedioic acid
tryptophanyl-glutamic acid; Tryptophyl-Glutamate; L-Trp-L-Glu; L-tryptophyl-L-glutamic acid; N-L-Tryptophyl-L-glutamic acid; (S)-2-[(S)-2-Amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionylamino]-pentanedioic acid
Crystalline Solid
Melting Point
Soluble in Chloroform (Slightly), DMSO (Slightly)
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1. PPAR-γ agonist GL516 reduces oxidative stress and apoptosis occurrence in a rat astrocyte cell line
Letizia Giampietro, Marialucia Gallorini, Amelia Cataldi, Viviana di Giacomo, Rosa Amoroso, Barbara De Filippis Neurochem Int . 2019 Jun;126:239-245. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2019.03.021.
Aims:The worldwide increase in aging population is prevalently associated with the increase of neurodegenerative diseases. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) are ligand-modulated transcriptional factors which belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily which regulates peroxisome proliferation. The PPAR-γ is the most extensively studied among the three isoforms and the neuroprotective effects of PPAR-γ agonists have been recently demonstrated in a variety of preclinical models of neurological disorders. The aim of the study is to biologically evaluate the neuroprotective effects of new PPAR-γ selective agonists in an in vitro model.Main methods:CTX-TNA2 rat astrocytes were treated with G3335, a PPAR-γ antagonist, to simulate the conditions of a neurological disorder. Newly synthetized PPAR-γ selective agonists were added to the cell culture. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay, catalase activity was investigated by a colorimetric assay, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and apoptosis occurrence were measured by flow cytometry. Western blotting were performed to measure the levels of protein involved in the apoptotic pathway.Key findings:Four PPAR-γ agonists were selected. Among them, the GL516, a fibrate derivative, showed low cytotoxicity and proved effective in restoring the catalase activity, reducing ROS production and decreasing the apoptosis occurrence triggered by the G3335 administration. The effects of this molecule appear to be comparable to the reference compound rosiglitazone, a potent and selective PPAR-γ agonist, mainly at prolonged exposure times (96 h).Significance:Based on recent evidence, hypofunctionality of the PPAR-γ in glial cells could be present in neurodegenerative diseases and could participate in pathological mechanisms through peroxisomal damage. The fibrate derivative PPAR-γ agonist GL516 emerged as the most promising molecule of the series and could have a role in preventing the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders.
2. Melatonin alleviates acute spinal cord injury in rats through promoting on progenitor cells proliferation
Dingjun Hao, Hua Guo, Bolong Zheng, Baorong He Saudi Pharm J . 2017 May;25(4):570-574. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.025.
The previous studies have shown that melatonin is beneficial for nervous system after spinal cord injury (SCI). After SCI, the endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (eNSPCs) proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glial cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of melatonin on eNSPCs proliferation and differentiation in SCI rat model. SCI rat model was established by dropping a 10 g rod from the height of 25 mm. Then, the rats were randomly divided into the control group, the melatonin treated group, and the G3335 treated group. The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale (BBB scale) was used to evaluate the recovery of locomotor function after SCI. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate eNSPCs proliferation and differentiation. The rats in the melatonin treated group demonstrated significantly faster locomotor function recovery and more eNSPCs proliferation and differentiation. However, these effects were abolished in the G3335 treated group. Melatonin can effectively promote locomotor function recovery via improving eNSPCs proliferation and differentiation after SCI.
3. ALK7 Acts as a Positive Regulator of Macrophage Activation through Down-Regulation of PPARγ Expression
Wenyan Li, Quan Zhang, Wen-Lin Cheng, Lin Zhang, Jian-Lei Cao, Sheng-Ping Chao, Xi-Lu Chen, Fang Zhao J Atheroscler Thromb . 2021 Apr 1;28(4):375-384. doi: 10.5551/jat.54445.
Aim:Activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7) acts as a key receptor for TGF-β family members, which play important roles in regulating cardiovascular activity. However, ALK7's potential role, and underlying mechanism, in the macrophage activation involved in atherogenesis remain unexplored.Methods:ALK7 expression in macrophages was tested by RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence co-staining. The loss-of-function strategy using AdshALK7 was performed for functional study. Oil Red O staining was used to observe the foam cell formation, while inflammatory mediators and genes related to cholesterol efflux and influx were determined by RT-PCR and western blot. A PPARγ inhibitor (G3335) was used to reveal whether PPARγ was required for ALK7 to affect macrophage activation.Results:The results exhibited upregulated ALK7 expression in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) induced bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) and mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs), isolated from ApoE-deficient mice, while ALK7's strong immunoreactivity in BMDMs was observed. ALK7 knockdown significantly attenuated pro-inflammatory, but promoted anti-inflammatory, macrophage markers expression. Additionally, ALK7 silencing decreased foam cell formation, accompanied by the up-regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 involved in cholesterol efflux but the down-regulation of CD36 and SR-A implicated in cholesterol influx. Mechanistically, ALK7 knockdown upregulated PPARγ expression, which was required for the ameliorated effect of ALK7 silencing macrophage activation.Conclusions:Our study demonstrated that ALK7 was a positive regulator for macrophage activation, partially through down-regulation of PPARγ expression, which suggested that neutralizing ALK7 might be promising therapeutic strategy for treating atherosclerosis.
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