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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent insulin secretagogue that has multiple synergetic effects on the glucose-dependent insulin secretion pathways of the beta-cell.

Peptide Inhibitors
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Molecular Formula
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(4S)-5-[[2-[[(2S,3R)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S,3R)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[2-[[(2S)-5-amino-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-6-amino-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S,3S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-6-amino-1-[[2-[[(2S)-1-amino-5-carbamimidamido-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-2-oxoethyl]amino]-1-oxohexan-2-yl]amino]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl]amino]-4-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-3-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]-4-carboxy-1-oxobutan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxohexan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-1,5-dioxopentan-2-yl]amino]-2-oxoethyl]amino]-4-carboxy-1-oxobutan-2-yl]amino]-4-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl]amino]-3-carboxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-3-hydroxy-1-oxobutan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]-3-hydroxy-1-oxobutan-2-yl]amino]-2-oxoethyl]amino]-4-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-amino-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoyl]amino]propanoyl]amino]-5-oxopentanoic acid
Glucagon-like peptide 1
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1. GLP-1 receptor agonists for individualized treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Juris J Meier Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2012 Dec;8(12):728-42. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2012.140. Epub 2012 Sep 4.
In healthy humans, the incretin glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted after eating and lowers glucose concentrations by augmenting insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon release. Additional effects of GLP-1 include retardation of gastric emptying, suppression of appetite and, potentially, inhibition of β-cell apoptosis. Native GLP-1 is degraded within ~2-3 min in the circulation; various GLP-1 receptor agonists have, therefore, been developed to provide prolonged in vivo actions. These GLP-1 receptor agonists can be categorized as either short-acting compounds, which provide short-lived receptor activation (such as exenatide and lixisenatide) or as long-acting compounds (for example albiglutide, dulaglutide, exenatide long-acting release, and liraglutide), which activate the GLP-1 receptor continuously at their recommended dose. The pharmacokinetic differences between these drugs lead to important differences in their pharmacodynamic profiles. The short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists primarily lower postprandial blood glucose levels through inhibition of gastric emptying, whereas the long-acting compounds have a stronger effect on fasting glucose levels, which is mediated predominantly through their insulinotropic and glucagonostatic actions. The adverse effect profiles of these compounds also differ. The individual properties of the various GLP-1 receptor agonists might enable incretin-based treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus to be tailored to the needs of each patient.
2. GLP-1 and weight loss: unraveling the diverse neural circuitry
Scott E Kanoski, Matthew R Hayes, Karolina P Skibicka Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016 May 15;310(10):R885-95. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00520.2015. Epub 2016 Mar 30.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is currently one of the most promising biological systems for the development of effective obesity pharmacotherapies. Long-acting GLP-1 analogs potently reduce food intake and body weight, and recent discoveries reveal that peripheral administration of these drugs reduces food intake largely through humoral pathways involving direct action on brain GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R). Thus, it is of critical importance to understand the neural systems through which GLP-1 and long-acting GLP-1 analogs reduce food intake and body weight. In this review, we discuss several neural, physiological, cellular and molecular, as well as behavioral mechanisms through which peripheral and central GLP-1R signaling reduces feeding. Particular attention is devoted to discussion regarding the numerous neural substrates through which GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs act to reduce food intake and body weight, including various hypothalamic nuclei (arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, periventricular hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamic area), hindbrain nuclei (parabrachial nucleus, medial nucleus tractus solitarius), hippocampus (ventral subregion; vHP), and nuclei embedded within the mesolimbic reward circuitry [ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc)]. In some of these nuclei [VTA, NAc, and vHP], GLP-1R activation reduces food intake and body weight without concomitant nausea responses, suggesting that targeting these specific pathways may be of particular interest for future obesity pharmacotherapy. The widely distributed neural systems through which GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs act to reduce body weight highlight the complexity of the neural systems regulating energy balance, as well as the challenges for developing effective obesity pharmacotherapies that reduce feeding without producing parallel negative side effects.
3. Is GLP-1 a hormone: Whether and When?
David D'Alessio J Diabetes Investig. 2016 Apr;7 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):50-5. doi: 10.1111/jdi.12466. Epub 2016 Mar 14.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a product of proglucagon cleavage synthesized in L cells in the intestinal mucosa, α-cells in the pancreatic islet, and neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract. GLP-1 is essential for normal glucose tolerance and acts through a specific GLP-1 receptor that is expressed by islet β-cells as well as other cell types. Because plasma concentrations of GLP-1 increase following meal ingestion it has been generally presumed that GLP-1 acts as a hormone, communicating information from the intestine to the endocrine pancreas through the circulation. However, there are a number of problems with this model including low circulating concentrations of GLP-1 in plasma, limited changes after meal ingestion and rapid metabolism in the plasma. Moreover, antagonism of systemic GLP-1 action impairs insulin secretion in the fasting state, suggesting that the GLP-1r is active even when plasma GLP-1 levels are low and unchanging. Consistent with these observations, deletion of the GLP-1r from islet β-cells causes intolerance after IP or IV glucose, challenges that do not induce GLP-1 secretion. Taken together, these data support a model whereby GLP-1 acts through neural or paracrine mechanisms to regulate physiologic insulin secretion. In contrast, bariatric surgery seems to be a condition in which circulating GLP-1 could have an endocrine effect. Both gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy are associated with substantial increases in postprandial GLP-1 release and in these conditions interference with GLP-1r signaling has a significant impact on glucose regulation after eating. Thus, with either bariatric surgery or treatment with long-acting GLP-1r agonists, circulating peptide mediates insulinotropic activity. Overall, a case can be made that physiologic actions of GLP-1 are not hormonal, but that an endocrine mechanism of GLP-1r activation can be co-opted for therapeutics.
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