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Glycine is a non-essential and proteinogenic amino acid.

DL-Amino Acids
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
2-aminoacetic acid
Aminoacetic acid; H-Gly-OH
White Crystalline Powder
1.3±0.1 g/cm3
Melting Point
240°C (dec.)
Boiling Point
240.9±23.0 °C at 760 mmHg
Store at RT
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1.Catalytic effects of histidine enantiomers and glycine on the formation of dileucine and dimethionine in the salt-induced peptide formation reaction.
Li F;Fitz D;Fraser DG;Rode BM Amino Acids. 2010 Jan;38(1):287-94. doi: 10.1007/s00726-009-0249-4. Epub 2009 Feb 12.
The salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction takes place readily under mild reaction conditions and proceeds via a copper complex. Its ease of reaction and the universality for prebiotic scenarios add weights to the arguments in favour of the importance of peptide and proteins in the tug of war with the RNA world hypothesis. In addition, the SIPF reaction has a preference for L-form amino acids in dipeptide formation, casting light on the puzzle of biohomochirality, especially for the amino acids with aliphatic side chains. A detailed investigation on the behaviour of aliphatic leucine in the SIPF reaction is presented in this paper, including the catalytic effects of glycine, L- and D-histidine as well as the stereoselectivity under all the reaction conditions above. The results show a relatively low reactivity and stereoselectivity of leucine in the SIPF reaction, while both glycine and histidine enantiomers remarkably increase the yields of dileucine by factors up to 40. Moreover, a comparative study of the effectiveness of L- and D-histidine in catalysing the formation of dimethionine was also carried out and extends the scope of mutual catalysis by amino acid enantiomers in the SIPF reaction.
2.In Vivo Assimilation of One-Carbon via a Synthetic Reductive Glycine Pathway in Escherichia coli.
Yishai O;Bouzon M;Döring V;Bar-Even A ACS Synth Biol. 2018 Jul 2. doi: 10.1021/acssynbio.8b00131. [Epub ahead of print]
Assimilation of one-carbon compounds presents a key biochemical challenge that limits their use as sustainable feedstocks for microbial growth and production. The reductive glycine pathway is a synthetic metabolic route that could provide an optimal way for the aerobic assimilation of reduced C1 compounds. Here, we show that a rational integration of native and foreign enzymes enables the tetrahydrofolate and glycine cleavage/synthase systems to operate in the reductive direction, such that Escherichia coli satisfies all of its glycine and serine requirements from the assimilation of formate and CO;2;. Importantly, the biosynthesis of serine from formate and CO;2; does not lower the growth rate, indicating high flux that is able to provide 10% of cellular carbon. Our findings assert that the reductive glycine pathway could support highly efficient aerobic assimilation of C1-feedstocks.
3.Modulation of GABA and glycine receptors in rat pyramidal hippocampal neurones by 3α5β-pregnanolone derivatives.
Bukanova JV;Solntseva EI;Kolbaev SN;Kudova E Neurochem Int. 2018 Sep;118:145-151. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2018.06.002. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
The ability of pregnanolone glutamate (PA-Glu), pregnanolone hemisuccinate (PA-hSuc) and pregnanolone hemipimelate (PA-hPim), neuroactive steroids with a negative modulatory effect on excitatory N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, to influence the functional activity of inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors was estimated. The GABA- and glycine-induced chloride currents (I;GABA; and I;Gly;) were measured in isolated pyramidal neurons of the rat hippocampus using the patch-clamp technique. Compound PA-Glu was found to potentiate I;GABA; and to inhibit I;Gly;, while PA-hSuc and PA-hPim inhibited both I;GABA; and I;Gly;. Moreover, PA-Glu, PA-hSuc, and PA-hPim had a greater effect on desensitization than on the peak amplitude of I;Gly;. At a high concentration of glycine (500 μM), the effect of neurosteroids on the peak amplitude of I;Gly; disappeared, and the acceleration of desensitization remained. The conversion of PA-Glu into androstane glutamate (AND-Glu), an analogue that lacks the C-17 acetyl moiety, completely eliminated the effects on these receptors. Our results indicate that the C-17 acetyl moiety is crucial for the action on I;GABA; and I;Gly;. Our results indicate that the pregnanolone derivatives, in contrast to the androstane analogues, modulate I;GABA; and I;Gly; at low micromolar concentrations and this family of neurosteroids can be useful for future structure-activity relationship studies of the steroid modulation of other receptor types.
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