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H-Arg-Arg-Arg-Arg-Arg-Arg-Arg-OH, either alone or in combination with therapeutic agents or large biopolymers, has been shown to easily cross a variety of biofilms (e.g. lipid bilayers and epithelial tissue). The importance of the guanidinium group in transport is supported by the observation that short oligomers of arginine enter cells far more rapidly than the corresponding oligomers of either lysine, histidine, ornithine or citrulline.

Functional Peptides
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-amino-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)pentanoyl]amino]-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)pentanoyl]amino]-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)pentanoyl]amino]-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)pentanoyl]amino]-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)pentanoyl]amino]-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)pentanoyl]amino]-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)pentanoic acid
Heptaarginine; L-arginyl-L-arginyl-L-arginyl-L-arginyl-L-arginyl-L-arginyl-L-arginine; H(-Arg)7-OH; L-Arginine, L-arginyl-L-arginyl-L-arginyl-L-arginyl-L-arginyl-L-arginyl-; Hepta-L-arginine
White Lyophilized Powder
≥95% by HPLC
1.59±0.1 g/cm3 (Predicted)
Store at -20°C
Soluble in Water
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1. Proteolysis of protein C in pooled normal plasma and purified protein C by activated protein C (APC)
Houria Hassouna, Christopher Quinn Biophys Chem. 2002 Feb 19;95(2):109-24. doi: 10.1016/s0301-4622(01)00267-8.
Protein C is a vitamin-K dependent zymogen of the anti-coagulant serine protease activated protein C (APC). In this paper, we report four lines of evidence that APC can activate protein C in pooled normal plasma, and purified protein C. First, the addition of APC to protein C-deficient plasma supplemented with protein C produces a prolongation of the clotting time of plasma that is proportional to the amount of protein C. This behavior was observed with APC from the Chromogenix APC resistance kit (Dia Pharm, Franklin, OH, USA) and from APC derived from the thrombin activation of human protein C (Enzyme Research Laboratories, South Bend, IN, USA). Secondly, using immunoblotting after gel electrophoresis, the disappearance of epitopes for monoclonal antibodies that recognize protein C but not APC indicates a time course for the activation by APC of protein C in pooled normal plasma and protein C purified from plasma. Thirdly, the same time course for the disappearance of protein C specific epitope can be followed using ELISA. Finally, protein C can be activated by APC as indicated by the increase in APC specific synthetic substrate Tryp-Arg-Arg-p nitroaniline hydrolysis. Kinetic data indicate a value of 4.7+/-0.4 mM(-1) s(-1) for the activation of protein C by APC under physiological conditions and in the presence of calcium. These observations document that APC must function not only in the inactivation of activated factors V and VIII, but also in the activation of protein C. This additional action of APC may be important to consider more broadly because of APC in the treatment of sepsis.
2. Arginine-Containing Tripeptides as Analgesic Substances: The Possible Mechanism of Ligand-Receptor Binding to the Slow Sodium Channel
Ilya V Rogachevskii, et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 May 26;23(11):5993. doi: 10.3390/ijms23115993.
Two short arginine-containing tripeptides, H-Arg-Arg-Arg-OH (TP1) and Ac-Arg-Arg-Arg-NH2 (TP2), have been shown by the patch-clamp method to modulate the NaV1.8 channels of DRG primary sensory neurons, which are responsible for the generation of nociceptive signals. Conformational analysis of the tripeptides indicates that the key role in the ligand-receptor binding of TP1 and TP2 to the NaV1.8 channel is played by two positively charged guanidinium groups of the arginine side chains located at the characteristic distance of ~9 Å from each other. The tripeptide effect on the NaV1.8 channel activation gating device has been retained when the N- and C-terminal groups of TP1 were structurally modified to TP2 to protect the attacking peptide from proteolytic cleavage by exopeptidases during its delivery to the molecular target, the NaV1.8 channel. As demonstrated by the organotypic tissue culture method, the agents do not affect the DRG neurite growth, which makes it possible to expect the absence of adverse side effects at the tissue level upon administration of TP1 and TP2. The data obtained indicate that both tripeptides can have great therapeutic potential as novel analgesic medicinal substances.
3. H-CRRETAWAC-OH, a lead structure for the development of radiotracer targeting integrin α5β1?
Roland Haubner, Simone Maschauer, Jürgen Einsiedel, Iris E Eder, Christine Rangger, Peter Gmeiner, Irene J Virgolini, Olaf Prante Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:243185. doi: 10.1155/2014/243185. Epub 2014 Oct 13.
Imaging of angiogenic processes is of great interest in preclinical research as well as in clinical settings. The most commonly addressed target structure for imaging angiogenesis is the integrin α(v)β(3). Here we describe the synthesis and evaluation of [(18)F]FProp-Cys(*)-Arg-Arg-Glu-Thr-Ala-Trp-Ala-Cys(*)-OH, a radiolabelled peptide designed to selectively target the integrin α(5)β(1). Conjugation of 4-nitrophenyl-(RS)-2-[(18)F]fluoropropionate provided [(18)F]FProp-Cys(*)-Arg-Arg-Glu-Thr-Ala-Trp-Ala-Cys(*)-OH in high radiochemical purity (>95%) and a radiochemical yield of approx. 55%. In vitro evaluation showed α(5)β(1) binding affinity in the nanomolar range, whereas affinity to α(v)β(3) and α(IIb)β(3) was >50 μM. Cell uptake studies using human melanoma M21 (α(v)β(3)-positive and α(5)β(1)-negative), human melanoma M21-L (α(v)β(3)-negative and α(5)β(1)-negative), and human prostate carcinoma DU145 (α(v)β(3)-negative and α(5)β(1)-positive) confirmed receptor-specific binding. The radiotracer was stable in human serum and showed low protein binding. Biodistribution studies showed tumour uptake ranging from 2.5 to 3.5% ID/g between 30 and 120 min post-injection. However, blocking studies and studies using mice bearing α(5)β(1)-negative M21 tumours did not confirm receptor-specific uptake of [(18)F]FProp-Cys(*)-Arg-Arg-Glu-Thr-Ala-Trp-Ala-Cys(*)-OH, although this radiopeptide revealed high affinity and substantial selectivity to α(5)β(1) in vitro. Further experiments are needed to study the in vivo metabolism of this peptide and to develop improved radiopeptide candidates suitable for PET imaging of α(5)β(1) expression in vivo.
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