1. Standardized Hybrid Closed-Loop System Reporting
Viral N Shah, Satish K Garg Diabetes Technol Ther. 2021 May;23(5):323-331. doi: 10.1089/dia.2020.0622. Epub 2020 Nov 25.
The hybrid closed-loop (HCL) system has been shown to improve glycemic control and reduce hypoglycemia. Optimization of HCL settings requires interpretation of the glucose, insulin, and factors affecting glucose such as food intake and exercise. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published guidance on the standardized reporting of HCL systems. Standardization of HCL reporting would make interpretation of data easy across different systems. We reviewed the literature on patient and provider perspectives on downloading and reporting glucose metric preferences. We also incorporated international consensus on standardized reporting for glucose metrics. We describe a single-page HCL data reporting, referred to here as "artificial pancreas (AP) Dashboard." We propose seven components in the AP Dashboard that can provide detailed information and visualization of glucose, insulin, and HCL-specific metrics. The seven components include (A) glucose metrics, (B) hypoglycemia, (C) insulin, (D) user experience, (E) hyperglycemia, (F) glucose modal-day profile, and (G) insight. A single-page report similar to an electrocardiogram can help providers and patients interpret HCL data easily and take the necessary steps to improve glycemic outcomes. We also describe the optimal sampling duration for HCL data download and color coding for visualization ease. We believe that this is a first step in creating a standardized HCL reporting, which may result in better uptake of the systems. For increased adoption, standardized reporting will require input from providers, patients, diabetes device manufacturers, and regulators.
2. Dissociative recombination of HCl+, H2Cl+, DCl+, and D2Cl+ in a flowing afterglow
Justin P Wiens, Thomas M Miller, Nicholas S Shuman, Albert A Viggiano J Chem Phys. 2016 Dec 28;145(24):244312. doi: 10.1063/1.4972063.
Dissociative recombination of electrons with HCl+, H2Cl+, DCl+, and D2Cl+ has been measured under thermal conditions at 300, 400, and 500 K using a flowing afterglow-Langmuir probe apparatus. Measurements for HCl+ and DCl+ employed the variable electron and neutral density attachment mass spectrometry (VENDAMS) method, while those for H2Cl+ and D2Cl+ employed both VENDAMS and the more traditional technique of monitoring electron density as a function of reaction time. At 300 K, HCl+ and H2Cl+ recombine with kDR = 7.7±2.14.5 × 10-8 cm3 s-1 and 2.6 ± 0.8 × 10-7 cm3 s-1, respectively, whereas D2Cl+ is roughly half as fast as H2Cl+ with kDR = 1.1 ± 0.3 × 10-7 cm3 s-1 (2σ confidence intervals). DCl+ recombines with a rate coefficient below the approximate detection limit of the method (≲5 × 10-8 cm3 s-1) at all temperatures. Relatively slow dissociative recombination rates have been speculated to be responsible for the large HCl+ and H2Cl+ abundances in interstellar clouds compared to current astrochemical models, but our results imply that the discrepancy must originate elsewhere.