1. Processing of an anglerfish somatostatin precursor to a hydroxylysine-containing somatostatin 28
J Spiess, B D Noe Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 1985 Jan;82(2):277-81. doi: 10.1073/pnas.82.2.277.
A novel 28-residue somatostatin (SS) has been isolated from anglerfish pancreatic islets and characterized by complete Edman degradation, peptide mapping, and amino acid analysis. The primary structure of this anglerfish SS-28 (aSS-28) containing hydroxylysine (Hyl) was established to be H-Ser-Val-Asp-Ser-Thr-Asn-Asn-Leu-Pro-Pro-Arg-Glu-Arg-Lys-Ala-Gly-Cys- Lys-Asn-Phe-Tyr-Trp-Hyl-Gly-Phe-Thr-Ser-Cys-OH. This sequence (with the exception of hydroxylysine-23, which is replaced by lysine) is identical to the sequence of the COOH-terminal 28 residues of prepro-SS II predicted on the basis of cDNA analysis [Hobart, P., Crawford, R., Shen, L., Pictet, R. & Rutter, W. J. (1980) Nature (London) 288, 137-141]. This is the first instance in which hydroxylysine (to date characteristically observed in collagen or collagen-like structures) has been found in a potential regulatory peptide. Chromatographic characterization of peptides, radiolabeled in islet culture, revealed that aSS-28 contained 10-12% of the radioactivity incorporated into the 8000- to 1000-dalton SS-like polypeptides, whereas 88-90% of this radioactivity was detected in anglerfish SS-14. It appears probable that aSS-28 represents the predominant primary cleavage product derived from prepro-SS II by cleavage at the COOH-terminal side of a single arginine. Based on knowledge of the collagen biosynthesis, it is speculated that hydroxylation may take place as an early post-translational event.
2. Creatinine, lactam and cyclic peptide formation by the action of C2N2 on creatine, omega-amino acids and peptides
A Silanee, R A Day, N Mastruserio, J A Wallace, P Hurt, R L Tharp, M E Madis Pept Res . 1990 Jul-Aug;3(4):169-75.
Cyanogen, C2N2, affords a means to drive intramolecular conversion of ammonium salts to amides. Unlike other carboxyl activating agents, such as carbodiimides, used in peptide syntheses expressly to drive intermolecular condensations to form amide (peptide) bonds, C2N2 appears restricted to driving only intramolecular condensations. Rates decreased as a function of solvent composition as follows: organic much greater than 70%-80% aqueous organic much greater than 50% aqueous organic greater than H2O. Temperature dependence was also a function of solvent composition. Rates did not strongly reflect steric constraints with beta-lactams and epsilon-lactams forming at comparable rates to rates for gamma- and delta-lactam formation; likewise L-Leu-L-Leu cyclized at about the same rate as L-Leu-D-Leu. Pro-Pro is well documented as having a salt-bridged structure in a variety of solvents where it cyclized extremely rapidly. The reaction is proposed to be dependent on reaction of C2N2 with salt-bridges on the basis of 1) its preponderant if not exclusively intramolecular nature, 2) its solvent dependence, 3) its temperature dependence and 4) the conversion of known salt-bridged structures to amides. This reaction is a model for the observed rapid reaction of salt bridges in proteins.
3. Metabolic profile of a peptide-conjugated chlorin-type photosensitizer targeting neuropilin-1: an in vivo and in vitro study
Dominique Dumas, Muriel Barberi-Heyob, Céline Frochot, Marc Dodeller, Noémie Thomas, François Guillemin, Loraine Tirand, Benoît Maunit Drug Metab Dispos . 2007 May;35(5):806-13. doi: 10.1124/dmd.106.013763.
Because angiogenic endothelial cells of the tumor vasculature represent an interesting target to potentiate the antivascular effect of photodynamic therapy, we recently described the conjugation of a photosensitizer [5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylchlorin (TPC)], via a spacer [6-aminohexanoic acid (Ahx)], to a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-specific heptapeptide [H-Ala-Thr-Trp-Leu-Pro-Pro-Arg-OH (ATWLPPR)] and showed that TPC-Ahx-ATWLPPR binds to neuropilin-1. Because peptides often display low stability in biological fluids, we examined the in vivo and in vitro stability of this conjugate by high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry. TPC-Ahx-ATWLPPR was stable in vitro in human and mouse plasma for at least 24 h at 37 degrees C but, following i.v. injection in glioma-bearing nude mice, was degraded in vivo to various rates, depending on the organ considered. TPC-Ahx-A was identified as the main metabolic product, and biodistribution studies suggested that its appearance in plasma mainly resulted from the degradation of the peptidic moiety into organs of the reticuloendothelial system. According to in vitro cell culture experiments, TPC-Ahx-ATWLPPR was also significantly degraded after incorporation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), mainly into TPC-Ahx-A and to a lesser extent into TPC-Ahx-AT and TPC-Ahx-ATWLPP. TPC-Ahx-ATWLPPR mostly localized into lysosomes, and when HUVEC were treated with the lysosomal enzymes' inhibitor ammonium chloride, this resulted in a significant decrease of the peptide degradation. This study provides essential information for the choice of the time of activation of the photosensitizer (drug-light interval) not to be exceeded and for the future design of more stable molecules.