1. Gene cloning and characterization of PepC, a cysteine aminopeptidase from Streptococcus thermophilus, with sequence similarity to the eucaryotic bleomycin hydrolase
M P Chapot-Chartier, F Rul, M Nardi, J C Gripon Eur J Biochem. 1994 Sep 1;224(2):497-506. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1994.00497.x.
Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ 302 contains at least three general aminopeptidases able to hydrolyze Phe-beta-naphthylamide substrate. The gene encoding one of these aminopeptidases was cloned from a total DNA library of S. thermophilus CNRZ 302 constructed in Escherichia coli TG1 using pBluescript plasmid. The wild-type TG1 strain, although not deficient in aminopeptidase activity, is unable to hydrolyze the substrate Phe-beta-naphthylamide, and thus the library could be screened with an enzymic plate assay using this substrate. One clone was selected which was shown to express an aminopeptidase, identified as a PepC-like enzyme on the basis of cross-reactivity with polyclonal antibodies directed against the lactococcal PepC cysteine aminopeptidase. The gene was further subcloned and sequenced. A complete open reading frame coding for a 445-residue (50414 Da) polypeptide was identified. 70% identity was found between the deduced amino acid sequence and the sequence of PepC from Lactococcus lactis subspecies cremoris, confirming the identity of the cloned gene. High sequence similarity (38% identity) was also found with an eucaryotic enzyme, bleomycin hydrolase. In addition, the predicted amino acid sequence of the streptococcal PepC showed a region of strong similarity to the active site of cysteine proteinases with conservation of the residues involved in the catalytic site. The product of the cloned pepC gene was overproduced in E. coli and was purified from a cellular extract. Purification to homogeneity was achieved by two-step ion-exchange chromatography. Biochemical characterization of the pure recombinant enzyme confirms that the cloned peptidase is a thiol aminopeptidase possessing a broad specificity. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 300 kDa suggesting an hexameric structure. On the basis of sequence similarities as well as common biochemical and enzymic properties, the bacterial PepC-type enzymes and the eucaryotic bleomycin hydrolase constitute a new family of thiol aminopeptidases among the cysteine peptidases.
2. Unveiling aminopeptidase P from Streptomyces lavendulae: molecular cloning, expression and biochemical characterization
Arya S Nandan, Kesavan Madhavan Nampoothiri Enzyme Microb Technol. 2014 Feb 5;55:7-13. doi: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2013.11.003. Epub 2013 Dec 4.
Presence of proline residues in the second position of the N-terminus in peptides restricts the usage of many aminopeptidases; however, aminopeptidase P (APP) is capable of removing this blockage. Based on the N-terminal amino acid sequences of APP from Streptomyces lavendulae, app gene was cloned in pET28a(+) and over expressed as a His-tagged protein with a molecular weight of ≈60 kDa in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Nucleotide sequencing revealed a 1467 bp open reading frame encoding 488 amino acids (NCBI Accession No: GenBank: KC292272.1). The substrate specificity of the recombinant APP was analyzed by the hydrolysis of the Xaa-Pro bond in Gly-Pro dipeptide and bradykinin. K(m) and V(max) of the enzyme were found to be 0.4697 mmol l⁻¹ and 0.6396 μmol min⁻¹, respectively. APP activity was enhanced in the presence of metal ions such as Co²⁺, Mn²⁺, Mg²⁺ and Cu²⁺ ions and was inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline, EDTA, PMSF and DTT. The atomic absorption studies revealed the presence of Mn²⁺ in the protein as a co-factor. This substrate specific metalloenzyme was found to be a tetramer and optimally active at pH 8 and 37 °C.
3. Cloning, expression, and characterization of human cytosolic aminopeptidase P: a single manganese(II)-dependent enzyme
G S Cottrell, N M Hooper, A J Turner Biochemistry. 2000 Dec 12;39(49):15121-8. doi: 10.1021/bi001585c.
The mammalian bradykinin-degrading enzyme aminopeptidase P (AP-P; E. C. 126.96.36.199) is a metal-dependent enzyme and is a member of the peptidase clan MG. AP-P exists as membrane-bound and cytosolic forms, which represent distinct gene products. A partially truncated clone encoding the cytosolic form was obtained from a human pancreatic cDNA library and the 5' region containing the initiating Met was obtained by 5' rapid accumulation of cDNA ends (RACE). The open reading frame encodes a protein of 623 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 69,886 Da. The full-length cDNA with a C-terminal hexahistidine tag was expressed in Escherichia coli and COS-1 cells and migrated on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 71 kDa. The expressed cytosolic AP-P hydrolyzed the X-Pro bond of bradykinin and substance P but did not hydrolyze Gly-Pro-hydroxyPro. Hydrolysis of bradykinin was inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline and by the specific inhibitor of the membrane-bound form of mammalian AP-P, apstatin. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy of AP-P expressed in E. coli revealed the presence of 1 mol of manganese/mol of protein and insignificant amounts of cobalt, iron, and zinc. The enzymatic activity of AP-P was promoted in the presence of Mn(II), and this activation was increased further by the addition of glutathione. The only other metal ion to cause slight activation of the enzyme was Co(II), with Ca(II), Cu(II), Mg(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) all being inhibitory. Removal of the metal ion from the protein was achieved by treatment with 1,10-phenanthroline. The metal-free enzyme was reactivated by the addition of Mn(II) and, partially, by Fe(II). Neither Co(II) nor Zn(II) reactivated the metal-free enzyme. On the basis of these data we propose that human cytosolic AP-P is a single metal ion-dependent enzyme and that manganese is most likely the metal ion used in vivo.