1.In-vitro activity of lytic peptides alone and in combination with macrolides and inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase against Pneumocystis carinii.
Cirioni O;Giacometti A;Barchiesi F;Scalise G J Antimicrob Chemother. 1998 Oct;42(4):445-51.
The in-vitro activity of cecropin P1, magainin II, indolicidin and ranalexin alone and in combination with macrolides and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors (DHFRs) was investigated against six clinical isolates of Pneumocystis carinii. The susceptibility tests were performed by inoculation of the isolates on to cell monolayers and determining the parasite count after 72 h incubation at 37 degrees C. The culture medium was supplemented with serial dilutions of each agent. The four peptides suppressed the growth of cysts and trophozoites by > or = 50% at 20 microM and 2 microM, respectively, with the exception of indolicidin (cysts: IC50, 20 microM; trophozoites: IC50, 20 microM). The IC90 values of all peptides for either cysts or trophozoites were observed at a concentration of 20 microM. Our data showed that the activity of lytic peptides remained virtually unchanged when they were tested either alone or in combination with macrolides and DHFRs, with the exception of ranalexin: a cysts/trophozoites reduction in the range 77.3-85.1% was observed when ranalexin 2 microM was combined with 4 mg/L of macrolides. Our study suggests that lytic peptides may be effective in inhibiting the growth of P.
2.In vitro pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial cationic peptides alone and in combination with antibiotics against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.
Dosler S;Mataraci E Peptides. 2013 Nov;49:53-8. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2013.08.008. Epub 2013 Aug 26.
Antibiotic therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections is becoming more difficult in hospitals and communities because of strong biofilm-forming properties and multidrug resistance. Biofilm-associated MRSA is not affected by therapeutically achievable concentrations of antibiotics. Therefore, we investigated the in vitro pharmacokinetic activities of antimicrobial cationic peptides (AMPs; indolicidin, cecropin [1-7]-melittin A [2-9] amide [CAMA], and nisin), either alone or in combination with antibiotics (daptomycin, linezolid, teicoplanin, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin), against standard and 2 clinically obtained MRSA biofilms. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm-eradication concentrations (MBEC) were determined by microbroth dilution technique. The time-kill curve (TKC) method was used to determine the bactericidal activities of the AMPs alone and in combination with the antibiotics against standard and clinically obtained MRSA biofilms. The MIC values of the AMPs and antibiotics ranged between 2 to 16 and 0.25 to 512 mg/L, and their MBEC values were 640 and 512 to 5120 mg/L, respectively. The TKC studies demonstrated that synergistic interactions occurred most frequently when using nisin+daptomycin/ciprofloxacin, indolicidin+teicoplanin, and CAMA+ciprofloxacin combinations.
3.Bilayer interactions of indolicidin, a small antimicrobial peptide rich in tryptophan, proline, and basic amino acids.
Ladokhin AS;Selsted ME;White SH Biophys J. 1997 Feb;72(2 Pt 1):794-805.
Tryptophan, proline, and basic amino acids have all been implicated as being important in the assembly and structure of membrane proteins. Indolicidin, an antimicrobial 13-residue peptide-amide isolated from the cytoplasmic granules of bovine neutrophils, is highly enriched in these amino acids: five tryptophans, three prolines, three basic residues, and no acidic residues. Consistent with the likely importance of these amino acids in membrane protein assembly, indolicidin is known to be highly membrane-active and is believed to act by disruption of cell membranes. We have, therefore, examined the interactions of native indolicidin with large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) formed from palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG), in order to use it as a model system for studying membrane protein insertion and for evaluating the relative contributions of hydrophobic and electrostatic forces in peptide-bilayer interactions. Equilibrium dialysis measurements indicate that indolicidin binds strongly, but reversibly, to both neutral POPC and anionic POPG vesicles with free energies of transfer of -8.8 +/- 0.2 and -11.5 +/- 0.4 kcal/mol, respectively.