1.Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of ipamorelin, a growth hormone releasing peptide, in human volunteers.
Gobburu JV;Agersø H;Jusko WJ;Ynddal L Pharm Res. 1999 Sep;16(9):1412-6.
PURPOSE: ;To examine the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of ipamorelin, a growth hormone (GH) releasing peptide, in healthy volunteers.;METHODS: ;A trial was conducted with a dose escalation design comprising 5 different infusion rates (4.21, 14.02, 42.13, 84.27 and 140.45 nmol/kg over 15 minutes) with eight healthy male subjects at each dose level. Concentrations of ipamorelin and growth hormone were measured.;RESULTS: ;The PK parameters showed dose-proportionality, with a short terminal half-life of 2 hours, a clearance of 0.078 L/h/kg and a volume of distribution at steady-state of 0.22 L/kg. The time course of GH stimulation by ipamorelin showed a single episode of GH release with a peak at 0.67 hours and an exponential decline to negligible GH concentration at all doses. The ipamorelin-GH concentration relationship was characterized using an indirect response model and population fitting. The model employed a zero-order GH release rate over a finite duration of time to describe the episodic release of GH. Ipamorelin induces the release of GH at all dose levels with the concentration (SC50) required for half-maximal GH stimulation of 214 nmol/L and a maximal GH production rate of 694 mIU/L/h.
2.Pharmacokinetic evaluation of ipamorelin and other peptidyl growth hormone secretagogues with emphasis on nasal absorption.
Johansen PB;Hansen KT;Andersen JV;Johansen NL Xenobiotica. 1998 Nov;28(11):1083-92.
1. The pharmacokinetics of three new peptidyl growth hormone secretagogues, ipamorelin (NNC 26-0161), NNC 26-0194 and NNC 26-0235, were compared with two well-known hexapeptides, GHRP-2 and GHRP-6, in the male rat following different routes of administration. 2. Following i.v. bolus injection, plasma concentrations of the peptides declined biexponentially. Ipamorelin differed markedly from the other peptides investigated, demonstrating a systemic plasma clearance 5-fold lower than that of GHRP-6. Ipamorelin was mainly excreted in the urine, whereas GHRP-6 was predominantly excreted in the bile. NNC 26-0194 and NNC 26-0235 also showed high biliary excretions. Ipamorelin and the two NNC peptides were moderately resistant towards metabolism as 60-80% of the administered dose could be recovered from bile and urine as intact peptide. 3. After intranasal application, the bioavailability of ipamorelin was estimated at approximately 20%. Higher bioavailabilities of approximately 50% were determined for NNC 26-0235, NNC 26-0194 and GHRP-2, whereas the nasal absorption of GHRP-6 was somewhat lower. Thus, the peptides could be easily transported across the nasal epithelium suggesting that the nasal route seems promising for systemic delivery of this family of peptidyl growth hormone secretagogues.
3.A new series of highly potent growth hormone-releasing peptides derived from ipamorelin.
Ankersen M;Johansen NL;Madsen K;Hansen BS;Raun K;Nielsen KK;Thogersen H;Hansen TK;Peschke B;Lau J;Lundt BF;Andersen PH J Med Chem. 1998 Sep 10;41(19):3699-704.
A new series of GH secretagogues derived from ipamorelin is described. In an attempt to obtain oral bioavailability, by reducing the size and the number of potential hydrogen-bonding sites of the compounds, a strategy using the peptidomimetic fragment 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid and sequential backbone N-methylations was applied. Several compounds from this series release GH with high in vitro potency and efficacy in a rat pituitary cell assay and high in vivo potency and efficacy in anesthetized rats. The tetrapeptide NNC 26-0235 (3-(aminomethyl)benzoyl-D-2Nal-N-Me-D-Phe-Lys-NH2) shows, following iv administration, comparable in vivo potency to ipamorelin, GHRP-2, and GHRP-6 with an ED50 in swine at 2 nmol/kg. NNC 26-0235 demonstrated a 10% oral bioavailability in dogs, and NNC 26-0235 and ipamorelin were able to increase basal GH level by more than 10-fold after oral administration of a dose of 1.8 and 2.7 mg/kg, respectively. The tripeptide NNC 26-0323 (3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid-N-Me-D-2Nal-N-Me-D-Phe-ol) which showed moderate in vitro potency but lacked in vivo potency demonstrated a 20% oral bioavailability in rats.