1.Defining the Role of Stress Granules in Innate Immune Suppression by the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Endoribonuclease VHS.
Burgess HM;Mohr I J Virol. 2018 Jul 17;92(15). pii: e00829-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00829-18. Print 2018 Aug 1.
In response to virus-induced shutoff host protein synthesis, dynamic aggregates containing mRNA, RNA-binding proteins and translation factors termed stress granules (SGs) often accumulate within the cytoplasm. SGs typically form following phosphorylation and inactivation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), a substrate of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated kinase protein kinase R (PKR). The detection of innate immune sensors and effectors like PKR at SGs suggests a role in pathogen nucleic acid sensing. However, the functional importance of SGs in host innate responses is unclear and has primarily been examined in response to infection with select RNA viruses. During infection with the DNA virus herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), the virus-encoded virion host shutoff (VHS) endoribonuclease is required to restrict interferon production, PKR activation, and SG formation, although the relationship between these activities remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that in cells infected with a VHS-deficient HSV-1 (ΔVHS) dsRNA accumulated and localized to SGs. Surprisingly, formation of dsRNA and its concentration at SGs was not required for beta interferon mRNA induction, indicating that suppression of type I interferon induction by VHS does not stem from its control of dsRNA accumulation.
2.Mitochondrial dysfunction induces SESN2 gene expression through Activating Transcription Factor 4.
Garaeva AA;Kovaleva IE;Chumakov PM;Evstafieva AG Cell Cycle. 2016;15(1):64-71. doi: 10.1080/15384101.2015.1120929.
We found that inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes III (myxothiazol) and I (piericidin A) in some epithelial carcinoma cell lines induce transcription of the p53-responsive SESN2 gene that plays an important role in stress response and homeostatic regulation. However, the effect did not depend on p53 because i) there was no induction of p53 after the treatment with piericidin A; ii) after the treatment with myxothiazol the peak of SESN2 gene upregulation occurred as early as 5h, before the onset of p53 activation (13h); iii) a supplementation with uridine that abolishes the p53 activation in response to myxothiazol did not abrogate the induction of SESN2 transcripts; iv) in the p53 negative HCT116 p53 -/- cells SESN2 transcription could be also induced by myxothiazol. In response to the respiratory chain inhibitors we observed an induction of ATF4, the key transcription factor of the integrated stress response (ISR). We found that the induction of SESN2 transcripts could be prevented by the ISR inhibitory small molecule ISRIB. Also, by inhibiting or overexpressing ATF4 with specific shRNA or ATF4-expressing constructs, respectively, we have confirmed the role of ATF4 in the SESN2 gene upregulation induced by mitochondrial dysfunction.
3.Rescue of impaired sociability and anxiety-like behavior in adult cacna1c-deficient mice by pharmacologically targeting eIF2α.
Kabir ZD;Che A;Fischer DK;Rice RC;Rizzo BK;Byrne M;Glass MJ;De Marco Garcia NV;Rajadhyaksha AM Mol Psychiatry. 2017 Aug;22(8):1096-1109. doi: 10.1038/mp.2017.124. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
CACNA1C, encoding the Ca;v;1.2 subunit of L-type Ca;2+; channels, has emerged as one of the most prominent and highly replicable susceptibility genes for several neuropsychiatric disorders. Ca;v;1.2 channels play a crucial role in calcium-mediated processes involved in brain development and neuronal function. Within the CACNA1C gene, disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with impaired social and cognitive processing and altered prefrontal cortical (PFC) structure and activity. These findings suggest that aberrant Ca;v;1.2 signaling may contribute to neuropsychiatric-related disease symptoms via impaired PFC function. Here, we show that mice harboring loss of cacna1c in excitatory glutamatergic neurons of the forebrain (fbKO) that we have previously reported to exhibit anxiety-like behavior, displayed a social behavioral deficit and impaired learning and memory. Furthermore, focal knockdown of cacna1c in the adult PFC recapitulated the social deficit and elevated anxiety-like behavior, but not the deficits in learning and memory. Electrophysiological and molecular studies in the PFC of cacna1c fbKO mice revealed higher E/I ratio in layer 5 pyramidal neurons and lower general protein synthesis.